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Full text of "TRS-80 Manual: Montezuma Micro CPM 2.2 (19xx)(Montezuma Micro)"

;; ^ a m 

■^^ ' / TABLE OF CONTENTS ^^ W> 

■:-; L ,\ ■■;■:: ■■:■ ' ^tukmawual"'^.- './•• ' : ' X ; ? : '■'■:. ■■ •.'•■ '■"■-'.■ ■■■■■■• 3 -' .^•••• ( 

' ^'''"-r'/V'J^'*'' 2. UPGRADE POLICY'.? " >•- *'' , ,>•,*"'•-;' ! / • V >, ^ '. 

y r , *v <!**'.$< - •- '. .*^A' ^^-<y^yy; '-v/y^y :.>;" »«.' , 

., ,AJ#/ .«^-' ' ' ' 3. THE CP/M DISK ?V *■»• '. ; ,''*'•• "A 't? •' , - " • ? 

'/ < ' ., 4. GETTING STARTED'' " ' 



/- . c t ' ' 




-fx> a v 



i*'' «a^*%4\ *',- ' - ' * 7-1. A drive by any other name '..I ii */"/" "':' 

/'/! ,•'■/, ;^ '"•''» .'' 7.2: Buffers, bytes/and things that go bump'o 

V'* ,t „• i v , • , ■ - ''»■*. • 



10 - ' 

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onjthe disk/ '.•'-.-," yv';- '16 ^ ;. , .'p-',/,/,/ /' 



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8. MEMORY DISK DRIVE . ' ' ' ' ' ' 18 -Y f- n , 

."*> • ' • ' •",' * '' i. ' ' * " , ' , 'A '•> • 

■9. DISK FORMATS , .- 19 7 •./ « •— i/ / ^ /-• C^' '" ''' 1 " n v>< 

9.1. -The Philosophy '•* *> ' ' ' A •' /,'•. .. v ,"" >'. ,-19 

• ,\ 9.2. Montezuma Standard Formats v, ~, '' - '. '. *.' * '."' . 20 * 

'* 9.3. Rolling Jour Own * 'J/- "■'>*-' u ^ ^f'-^''.', %' / V,'. ^'V, 20 . ^' I ^ _ t ^ 

, 9.4. Formats to go — Placing Your Order ; •■• "~ • '' '* v . 22' , • / , \ L/ ■— Jri^Mci-Z 










o/P 



/^ o>.^ 






.'-''I. > 



'12.3. Copying disks . . 

12.4. Checking disks -' , /. .* . • 



13.MOVCPM '.\?,\vv; '■•' ,,/,'<:.;." ,; % l .;-y- V /, '-/,.•' ;;V/; 49 
: -14.'SYSGEN .• -. ,'f 1 ' : ',: .","-•.*'_ •/ , -, -• ,- - 51 i 



.Montezuma Micro,CP/M,2.2.' ... Manual Revision #2.30- ;f ■/ [ I , Page 1/,^', -,' 

,* u i'" '' •,/ ' '.''A * •/» • * ".y^v y - '■ ' ' v' ', -' t' yk"rf'« .y •/ r,; , 



^ I .. ■ . 15.* ADVAN^ ^PROGRAMMING INFORMATION '\.. ■ ". ' . ■'- 53. 

A 15.!, M;, Ausaae '53, 



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54 


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59 


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15.3. Processor Clock Speed'.l'.">>" r ^ ' • J"-' 
' ,15.4. Register Usage . , "•._- \ '• 

16. BUG REPORT ••- ■" ' . .' : \\''' "■- ' • " ' ' 
- 17. COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS-' v 

18. REFERENCES ' ■ , s ' - ; ," ' 
','.• ',. 18.1. Reference Book's"-'"'. ' ->'^"'' '•■•' ( " 1 .' , ,',,v' , '.''V ,; V 
- 18.2. CPyM Magazines ^CV ;/'.';,"-*'.' '*<-, _ "-,.;■"*; 

r ;• . '■ -"^indexX, ." i' , y'^\!:k-\^4:^\' : \J\i , K^ ,V-V : V»><- ' go ;. i - , -?.';>.V' (1 t ; 
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Montezuma Micro C?/U 2.2. v ""'Manual Revision #2.30 ' -\ - Page 2 






.•..'';•' r\'V. -''-•'•''*•?"'«- J- THE MANUAL ^ 

' CP/M {Control Program *for Microcomputers) was /created in the 1 late 1970's by Gary', '- 
1 ■", Kildall of Digital Research.-'' CP/M has 'been/called 'a "standard. operating system"; with. 
i, x some justification',- and a!tvery large number of programs -have been written that ''run '. : 

'under <it. . Your Model t 4/4P'-"CP/M 2.2 .supports all correctly .written" 'applications' for ' 
.this version.". ]:}* ''■ ■-> V,' ^i'>\'Xl„< ■• ; «' , '-• ', ...''.* "• 

' ,„ This Jusers 'manual for CPVM'2^,'for the TRS-80 "Model 4/4P is designed to "supply* the' 
.^information necessary .to -'operate 'CP/M' 'on\ the <TRS~80„ Model -4. It /provides •, as ■ 

non- technical, a .discussion, as possible and attempts to cover the utility programs 'and ' ' 
. disk drive/terminal interfaces' provided 'hy Montezuma. Micro using a basic ' step-by-step. 
;- 'approach. The .explanations will,-, at 'times, leave the reader wanting' far, more, inf ormatib'n\.- v - 
.•^.thari "fhas "been ''.presented. .We 'respectfully, direct 'your attention/ to the CP/M ^manual v , 
f4vfurnished'"with':t'he system and th'e numerous itemsYeferenced at the end of this 1 work." 1 ." ,- '*•' . 

'■ In the explanations that follow, hold printing like this has been used to show what -you/ ' 

will see on the .video display. jThe text associated with the display is printed in normal 
-; 3 ;_;type.Yduv/illTalsp-'see many ■references to," Con trol".;keys, which will usually be written '/ 

" as the "A" character followed 'by 'a letter.' When 'you are instructed to type such a key."*; 
" "sequence the ^"AMs-a slgnal-;to : ;push dowmand hold the CTRL while pushing the letter 

key. For example, to type AC^'bne'of the most common control sequences, v you> would ,'_, 
■ t l push and hold the CTRL key, the'n push the VC, key; aruffinallyrelease both keys.* ' k •' '' --* v "' : 






".While we "have "tried to' m'akestMs^users'manual^as'accur'ate as' possible, it is" inevitable / 
"•that errors exist and will ,-be, discovered. 'Please'use', the Bug'Report (REPORTiBUG{ori'; ,' 
* "the CP/M 'disk) and let us know.vWe' do-.not;offer.cash" rewards-or free trips Ior ; the -bestir 1 -: 
'■-'or most Bug, Reports, but we do offer our "thanks for .your help, and will respond ( 't6"-'th*eVv 
\-, best of our ability to correct problems you may t encounter. , .^ • - -, '~"*'\ •./■" ,-w 

,• Please read the following" Information "carefully, at least once so" that you mayget r 'some ./, 
.i/ideapf .the versatility of.ithe,'; system. 'Always label [your/diskettes so .you can keep/track'*;' ; 
;?'bf the many. formats possible using .this system. .Get ■in.the habit' of pressing AC or BREAK'.]"- 
,',':every time ,you .-.change a idlskette/as" CP/M expects^itand sooner Or lateryou will -regret '., ;i 
',, not learning this quaint little custom. -\ .' „"•'' ' ,'•■.'■ >'J '.'".Ox.'.'-T"'' 

.-This "revision Vof ; release '.- 2 >6f . ■our.,. CP/M'- reflects'; enhancements that our, users have;- 
'.^.requested, as'well as •new;f'eaturesj-that;'we...have added. Our sincere thanks to. all "those',*'! 

'\: who sent in suggestions. ' , •' i * . .'' -. vV, s 

.• i ',"'.' • .ii ' .' .' - <'>',"»,. ,"- » . 

,"" Jesse 1 Bob Overholt ' ' "' ' ,V • • ' !.'"• - .-.. 



« . • > , t ■ 



Montezuma Micro.CP/M 2.2. T/;- Manual Revision #2.30 '■]'. .. , Page, 3 



,2. UPGRADE POLICY;: 



, ■ Your' purchase of our prbduc't"is'"deeply appreciated. We feel that once you have purchased , '■'. * '• , ; ' 
• our CP/M-.2.2 you ( need not purchase , it again'as some "new release." 'You may upgrade ',,',- : '• ' 

,',,/your .original diskVfat.'any-tirrie^to'the' then''current version with 'no charge except for , ' , 

. •*hand]Jng < ,and shipping which', currently amounts .to $15. 'The following -'procedure must , r '.''*,,>•. 

be followed: ■ r i /.-''*.'!•; -,,,,-. v - - ," • .' ' '* 

1. We must have.yo'ur signed registration card on file. ,* - '»; 

.; ~ " , ' No Card -~;U6 Upgrade. ',*.'. •'•.'■ < '. , •. ', , '. •-, V ' '■ ' -T •■• ' .' •. ",[ '-* s v h V)' - 's 

\ 2.' You\ must ireturh' the 'jojjgjiial djsk to us for upgrading!* Be surest is insured. We -V '.* .">' .»• 
„_ '.•'.-, -v are. "hot -.responsible - , for articles lost" or 'damaged :ln transit."', Protect yourself:' ' :': >;"'*" *" 
■ INSURE YOUR DISK ". ' ,", ' -• ' . , '. . , - -\ \; , 

..... No Original Disk— No Upgrade. . '- , ,. ■ , ,'. . '. • \ -''■ . 

1 . v * ' - ,. ?•'; :**.%, /;-•, *.* «'•"•• "" ' ' rr '* ■ ■"'•'' •" - ^'^{^ " ' 

' ?• ,-¥ return you wilUreceive either" your old disk back orVnew disk with the latest r ^Yt\ '' , ' 
, • , version of ,CP/M -2.2 J&nd^the* various 'utilities on.it along *vHth a new set -of-*. J -' - 
", * _.'■' documentation'such'as this. V,_ , \. "'*'"'' ' r : ' >-* '*■ ■- 

_ , Please "allow sufficient "time'"for .thVdisk to'reacti us, get updated, and returned to youi '>m«»> 
', - This could take as long a's,a "'couple of. weeks depending on 'the season 'and workload." ' - ' 

Please don't call and ask" : abouf your, disk until two, full weeks 'have elaDsed. We do our^'J*. 
," •„ utmost.to see' that every upgrade'.get"s processed with'a minimum of delay." ' ., > ".,{."«-)' 

. You may upgrade as many times as you wish as "long as* we are still producing the product.' ''-'-' - * 

' This policy applies -only-td'CP/M, 2.2 for the TRS-80, Model 4/4P.' If; Digital Research "! . 

; comes -.but with a CP/M 5.5^some time in the future and 'we choose to release it for'*'*- '' !"'• 

,'■'. the Model -4/4P it will.be considered a' new product "and 'you 'will 'not be'able to "upgrade" V'^*'^ 

to it ! for ; the shipping and handling charge per, the above instructions, , *. ■ \ '„ \< 



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M 



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* * ■■ * 




Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ■' ' Manual Revision' #2.30 



Page 4 



. ' , '-3. THE CP/M DISK 

(i - ' V,'"" • ' ■'"■'. 

',' ' The following sbftwar'emodules are supplied on your disk: ". 

1 .* "Digital. Research's CP/M'!2.2 operating system: customized by'dear old Monte' 

■V, *■ Digital Research Utility, Programs: " v i, t -■ J '; ,',,'* 

,''" '' ASM ' ,^VdT*..' ; ED 1 - -' STAT .•LOAD DUMP 

.' ' ; ' 1 MOVCPM 'SYSGEN"' 'SUBMIT XSUB ' 'PIP 1 ' ■ 



' •,* Montezuma Micro, Utility Programs: J; v \ ?■> . • . ( 
' ' ; . , . ^'' , FXBIOS , CONFIG * .DUP/\ v/KEYDEF^' 

, * Montezuma Micro 'Files: 1 -'' , ' ','"'/'"' 

■' ; "' '•' DISK.FDF REPORT.BUG' "* ', -,," ,' * -V ,,- ,/;\" 1 ' 

1 J-' -"■*.."' >•.' " ; ^;V% v .r\ >\ J ] •,./""?■ f >\ • 'V<, -" - >''>:#$}?*:>/'" 

*■>'*■ * ' ' ' > « ', ■ l » t » "!, - 1 > * '• •<■ < _'< J . 1 ,. '■ ," • ' , ' ".-*■* **,r^^» ' 

• ' - *; Other programs and; files 'may be added fromltime to time. These will usually ~ "~ have^' * „ 

.,>*-."• J i* supporting documentation in 'files, V/ith a'- file 'type of '.DOC 1 . Be sure to', read;- this '">' 

*~ ■ -'*>"/ <_•> .documentation. '< „•,.:?>* *_ ', ,'''.",'*)!'i;- f u'. ' ' .'- -vf '/»- v 

\' -."•• r , ^ ''■- >v ,'"-,' ^ v^.'. "'• ' ->0 * ."'' v •"• V -- 1 "' ?,•"* - ''■ •!•*. f' - '■ '^"'TiV- 2 *- .- • 

. . ■ ' ■•• " ' '• .' , 

• The disk:' format 1 used on' -this. distribution '"disk 1 is Monte2uma Micro Standard^ SYSTEM/./,' 

\„ u '•'. Disk format, defined as follows: • „'> - "- ' M .!',"' t :.- \" , «"." v '" t ''.v*'^ «\- ' » 

>' *, • ' 

l> -';'*,' Double Density 







-^ sv > ' " 


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"V? ^ S , « • * , s ; 


v - , i -i « *- ' ',', S 


1 5 !*£ - .;£&'''£ ' :(;1'/"- ;"'I'X! ■':■■■' 'V ? 




*'*'-*. ' 


^^i^>^r^%Si:iH'^i3^fe^*£ 


i >'|M;;J)^«|?$4.^ 




,',, ''■ l ' • : 


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i. 








'*; ; Single-sided : *"; 'l J .'/- ',' 



^^■' 









'-* 18 sectors per track . - V 

."' * 256 bytes' per sector,, j 

'< i . v " f v ■ ' :, ^ ^ ' 















'-•>-.{,'-. • ' ''•'', .-•'', ''>',,i,i"} : ,^'- ' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ;'; :, Manual Revision #2. 30 ,<i: , ,;"- Page 5; 






•4; GETTING STARTED, 



.v'Refore. turning-on-'your-.computer't'o'.try out your copy -of CP/M, please take a moment 
/; 'to .make' sure that- .there, are not-disks in any of "the disk' drives. :,This' is an important- 
^■rule to" remember, —.never, tunvthe. computer ON or OFF with a disk in it. Magnetic' 
:; pulses 'created when .'power is applied or-removed ;can-,alter. ; data fields on a ! disk and* 
- -ereate.read or. write errors.;- ^', .-, . „■ ,. • . ■ - 



;'" 7 Once, the' computer has been turned on, place the CP/M diskette in drive A-.-This is- "'' ' "■' '•' 
,-,' the bottom drive, on ;,a .-Model 4 computer, or the.left'-'drivein'a Model 4P. Insert the "'* " ' : 

■•; disk, with Mhe'iwrite-protect, notch to the; left (Model '4 desktop) or down (Model 4P ' - - •' 
;;• portable). If in -doubt '.please -consult .the manual that- wasjprovided with your. Model . 4 ' <V,,-. ';. 
> , f .; computer.' When the disMs loaded close the door on the drive and push, the RESET switch '.V% ■•'.- 
,- >; on the.computer. In a few moments the computer will beep and display the following: .,' " ' . v> . v - ; 

, JRS-80 Model 4 64k CP/M vers 2.2(c) (p) 1982 Digital Research Inc ' " 

... BIOS . vers 2.xx (c) (p) 1984. Montezuma Micro/ JBO -' * . '• i . , ■■' i ■•!".'.' •" 

* - '*<• 1 u '<•' ;' , . ' K , > " •'/■ '••'•-'«•' I , ;,''*t' "'■; 

If the above message 'fails; to' appear "at 'the top of your screen, don't panic. Remove' '• '" , 

\ the disk and run through this checklist: ^ . ' * ,, . • <. . ]-',<. 

\ J,' Make sure the disk was "properly inserted into the'driWOn the Model 4 the label. •>>' V* f * ' 
< should ,,be, face up -and" the'-write-protect notch should be to the left. On Model' >>'''-L )l 
' ; v V ,' I 4P the label *f- to . the tef t and the write-protect notch is to the bottom. •_ „ ;»-,*- ; *. . '[*"- 

_ \ »2. Check the brightness and contrast "controls on the computer. They 'may' have* •~.,?.^-~ 
. - ... .-.become adjusted ..to'jthe, point where there is no longer a visible display on the^'C-tf';'' 
,• screen - .•' ':,; V;' l ,Vr /; '• >: .-'..,.; . ( . k . , ; •• ;,,,„>: 

' ' ' ' * *• ' > ",'.;w; >">'; '' ^ « •' .'• , ' , -'. " ' ," \ \ -"' . *'* '«■•• 

. • 3. ' OK;this is obvious,' but it does happen. Make sure'the' computer' is plugged infH '" <'' '"T >.','/ ■*•':',; 

"-'.,» ,',,,',''"!,» > • ■> ... - . / • » "/:>'%,.;. ; 

• 4. ;If.your computer is 'a Model *4P and'it has a hard 'disk' drive connected you 'mW''-V<V^\ ' 
, . •',., hold down the F2,key>ntil .'CP/M displays its banner; Otherwise 'the •computer'"*. <V- *-,'"» 
• ( ' will ,try to load the operating system from the hard disk. ' , * , '-•,'' <*.'V' ' 

r 5. It' is possible,' although^not 'very likely, that your CP/M disk is 'defective. In such.'" S^.'' 
. ,, f , . cases ,theloading.program; ; 'will.display the message "BOOT error!", '0^ the screen.' ,-,;'./> , 
. . -."• -Sometimes.; just .pushing , reset a few times 'will 'cause v a successful load, but if *' '* . ■, '' 
;- - the disk was "bit^with :a -magnetic -field in its ".journey .from us' to you it may be .• .' ' c - 
, - ( simply unreadable.; Before returning it .to us try it on' another Model 4, if possible. 
If there 'is a" problem With your /computer the disk will work "on. another system. 
t ' In such cases, consult, your dealer for'assistance,- in getting -the -Computer, working - , *•' V 

properly. .,. _ * , - , < . t , -.*•','.*,' 

*. !; F !? U ^n?™™*™ dlsk t0 u *' piease shlp " pre P ald and i"S"red i AU the information i ' '■KX'- • ' 

If your computer contains the optional 64k memory expansion, with a total of 'l28k'' ! / '\' ?',' 
. of memory, you will also get the following display: * , , „ , -l'.. ' ,V • . 

' ■ -•"■' • .'•"-.. •.-;,'- • . , - ; ; -' v -,- "', ,- •» ;'• '•..-." ' ~"' x 

-.-'.- >» Memory Drive M: ENABLED 

• ' Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. - ' _ Manual Revision #2.30 Page 6 ' , ■ • '' ' 



6lFd 



This n^Age is.arrindication that the extra memory has been set up to aj 
as a G^Pdisk drive. More -information 1 about this feature is contained 5TT 
■headed MEMORY; DISK DRIVE. 



^rtorCPV'kP 
"the section' 



Following this "sign-on" information CP/M will, display a listing of the files on' the CP/M , 
diskette. File names which end in '.COM' are- commands that CP/M can execute: 'Those v ' 
■with a '.DOC extension are documentation, often for 'a '.COM'.-file of the. same narre':*' 
;.You : can (and 'should) listithe '.DOC '.files using- the »CP/M TYPE command. -See your 

CP/M .reference'book'for more information. , ,' 

.The first thing you 'should' do with your new copy of CP/M" is' to make'a backup* : copy' 
:of it. This is done, using the' Disk- Utility Program, of DUPfor'Sshort. To runithis' program 1 ' 
.boot, the -distribution. disk and. wait for the command prompt •(£» and then'-hblri'-down : 
-the CTRL key and push the Fl key. The word -DUPwilEappear-'on* the screen and -the" 
j- Disk Utility.program will load. In a few seconds the following menu will 'appear: - "\y .'? :.- 

TRS-80 Model 4 CP/M 2.2 Disk Utility Program version ]. xx ' . ' '' ' 

Copyright (c) (p) 1984 Montezuma Micro/TBO ■ > ' 



[A] Format a disk 
,,[B]'' Copy a disk ,-,' .' .. ' 
[ C ] . Check a disk for errors 



:>3:' 






Select [ A --C]. or BREAK (AC) lo exit. Your choice: [J . . 

. Since we want 'to "make a backup we choose item B, Note that it does nof matter whether'- 

,;:the disk 'we are. copying -to has been -formatted or hot. The copy routing WU^do'-thaV- 

for us. At .this point. a, second menu will- appear, 'indicating that we are copying l a- disk! £ 

.-. This menu is as follows: < r, - . < < ' , „, • . - i *- n • ■ 



■C-< 



.Select the drive to copy from (SOURCE): 



;';& 



,,,j S . 



I Drive 

[A] 
•t.B] ; 

[C]' 

[D]T 
■I E ].'■:' 

[F] 

[G]' 
.[H].- 
■II] ■•' 

[J] 

[K] 
".[Ll'i 

[M] ■ 

[N] . 

[O] 
'[P.] : > 



Physical drive & current format 

0: ■ Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T 9 .SS, DD, 1 70K) 
jl: Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T S SS;?DD,170K5'- 
0: ■ Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk HOT^SS^DD. 200K) i| 
1: Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS, DD, 200K) ' 
■ Undefined disk drive • • 

. ', Undefined disk drive •' • .-•'■..'. ' • 

Undefined dink drive 



Undefined d 
Undefined d 

^Undefined d 
Undefined d 

'Undefined d! 



! ** -A'- 



iisk drive ■ 

Isk drive \y, -' , '-,">-.',>-•>., '•' \- ■ 

isk drive ' ' ' '• • ' , "'V, , , : 

.isk drive . • '." ,, . . 

.. _ Jsk drive "- > " • " ';.'■ 
Fixed storage device or Undefined disk drive'lf 64k 

Undefined disk drive > * , „ , * i v , - 

Undefined disk drive ' / r ' J •■ *>;'•' ( , '_ . I • ', 

•Undefined disk drive ' ' .,! * ,""" ' . ', . ' ' 



Select [ A -- D J. or BREAK (AC) to exit. Your choice: [ 3 









i ',,->,•. 



'3J.«*'W*4-*ttt?«S''- 



IviV' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2/, 



Manual Revision #2,30' 



Page 7; 



With so;, many choices .this'menurcan: be overwhelming, but only the first four, choices , 
fwill'.'be accepted.>:The .others are:there ,to handle .'expansion,, of ■:your..CP/M, system,; with 

additional 'diskydrives^'or'vhard"; disk ;'syst'ems,For..nowijust ; - select 'drive A: as the .disk ..to* 
■■'■copy, from V As soon asth'is'selection'is made another ..menu 'appears, Just like the previous j 
(One except the' top line .reads as follows: ._.<■■ V 

Select the drive to copy lb (DESTINATION): 

Since .we,- are .performing* a -first-time:. backup, select drive B:; This ;brings us the'' next - 
menu: ^ ■' ,.; . w\ ,*• c , (< ." > ■ ,'.,•" 

i Copying : -FROM;, the disk'in drive .A^'physlcal drive .. . " , .- .. 

Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T, SS, nn,-170K) ' , 

's Copying TO the disk in drive B: s physical drive 1 . ' 



Load the SOURCE and DESTINATION disks. Push ENTER when ready, v ■■ ■ ■ 

■-The ;first line 'identifies ']. the" disktwe".: are ■ copying .FROM, >i.e; the: disk ■ we are making' , i'X -■ 
• a copy of.-On the second .line" .-that disk is described: >: as 'having 40 tracks and being Single , ■[■ 
i Sided, Double 'Density;! with"! 70K; of storage space,,; Below '.that the:drivewe are copying'', ',: 
.-TO, is identified. This is where 1 the blank disk should.be loaded. 4 ,,» ; 

Since-.we -are'eopying .the "system ;Jdisk>;it should already be_in drive* A:. You may want'-}*'' 

. to, put, a : write protect;, tab\onvlt --'if .there , Isn't, 'one :,on. It: already, just;.to be sure. Now, ?'; v -, 

put ;a blank disk, in. drive, i.B:,^which.-is the;top drive* on. the 'Model .4 -(or- right drive on' >- ; 1, 

the\'4P).> Check ^everything over/ and push ENTER.-;. If; for, ;:some reason a mistake "has. ., : 

, been m'ade'and you want to start over;' just push BREAK. - '' '- , _ ." ".-...v 

*DUP now checks the'"disk' In '.drive ',B:',to make sure It-is blank. If it "finds 'something .on'.'". .", 
the disk the' following message ..will be. displayed; , , 1 , v > .,-■;'' ,\ r ' , <'\"'-'.' 

■'■ ***** WARNING ***** ' ' ' ' ■ ' * ■> " x 

This disk is NOT BLANK! OK to DESTROY all information on Jt {Y/N)?, ;.'' ; J, 

.If the above message "appears '-'-check the disk in' drive B: carefully 'vto' make sure that .", -'>•'; 
.it doesn't contain anything you'need to keep. To return to the "Load disk", prompt answer -. , 
with 'N', otherwise once you are* sure about the destination disk answer 'Y'. 

Copying now proceeds < : .'track'"by track. Each track, requires four separate steps, displayed;' ,, 
, as follows: ■ > ,. 4 "•'< » ' , , >,",.' » " n -''*,': 

.^Copying track .,...„„.,,,.. • .'",,;-' ; , 

.'; Formatting •.■.>,[] \ ' ' ,',>'"■' • f .•„' " . "''".,"''' < 

".Reading ( [] ,','." • - ■."''"' *' ^ ;■/ '-•'""' 

Writing ' ■ f 1 , " ■.-"'.-. 

V Verifying ' -■ ' ' f I • • '.'.". 



. ■'Montezuma "Micrb "CP/M 2.2. ;... Manual Revision #2.30 Page 8 



'.The-cWKr .''Will ^display; between the brackets for each phase of . the"co|^FIf an error 
should occur.itrwill be displayed at'the bottom of the. screen. Some errors are correctable,": 
.'such : as:having''a ; ,:write-protect; tab on the. destination or leaving a drive door open,' ''while 
; others ^cannot be.' pvefcome.y.If an .uncorrectable; error 'occurs while ;reading'if. will;;be , 
Snecessary; to return -. the -disk to us. .Errors : during .formatting,- writing, " or. verifying; can , 
Ibe due,, to : flaws in the disk othat. you are writing to, or. a problem with your .computer/ 
Try ■ using .another . diskl.. If .that doesn't solve^the problem ..you ' will need to have ^yourS 
^computer checked/ ' ~A»' s . . ; 



'- , When the entire' disk- has been copied the following message will be displayed: 



Copy comnlete. ' 

;Push -ENTER 1o repftat, BREAK (AC) for menu. 



•Push 'BREAK: to return tothe main menu. Remove your -original CP/M disk from drive • 
,*A: and, put -It-" in a 'safe place. Do not use this disk again, except to: make more backup-!''' 
< copies. Move ithejnew^copy .from 'drive, B:;. to drive'.A: and push :.the RESET button'; -CP/M; £ 
■should, load and-'display.- its banner, "just lik e;'the^ original disk.dld.' If it does not/' take v 
your computer in.fora check'of the disk drive alignment., '' ' '■ - ' ( . >'<:',••-•? . 

, You are -now- readyMoJexplore your new Montezuma'.Micro :CP/M system.- Please continue 
reading this\manuall ■, -It ^'contains a lot of good information 'that will help you use' CP/M,' ' • 
■more effectively. Thank you for .your purchase! ■> -" /..',, - ' ... ;>/,.„%''-•*-,•, 



■ \ .* .,', j; x, r V/"t -V' 












*■'■>-* h^W^fti^'; 






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Manual Revision #2.30 



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'-/"", ,'''<"•' '> Vr/ '?* 5. KEYBOARD 

Because the^P~80 Model 4' keyboard does not ."contain' -the 'entire 'ASCn char JR-' set' 
|it;:ls>hecessa'ry v for some keys. to'produce' characters that do not appear on their keytops.-- 
» f The";-foU6wing list- show's \all 'the characters that- are produced in this way, along with 1 .- 
;-aids in" remembering these assignments. " ... 



Character '■ t , 

'ESC' ''. 'f ".'/; 

L. brace '([) 

Loft' slant 
^R.-'brace^]), ;{\" 

Vertical bar • 
' Tilde ^ -' 
V Carat (A)! "•<',''' 
^Accent 
■ Underscore, (0),- 

L. curly brace. 
-,>R,' curly brace . 
, DEL •, '.:?•' 



SHirT CLEAR 

,* CTRL ( t • ■' 

CTRL / . ' 
CTRL ) 
' CTRL V >"'*'' '- ■ 

' '" CTRL' 3 ->/'.; .' - 
CTRL T. ';■.-''■ 
CTRL 7 '•■' \ 

ctrl -'.'.' '-• ' 

CTRL< 

CTRL > • 

CTRL CLEAR 



... Memory 'aids & hex value ■■■■ ..'. '■ . 

ESCape often used to CLEAR errors (1BH). 
.-.-Braces are controlled 'parentheses (5BH). '■ 

Left slant'similar to right slant (5CH). 

See above for '[' (5DH). ' " • . .' 

"Odd" characters from" odd numbers (7CH).' 

See 'above (7EH). \' -\' '.' > ' ; ' ' i 

See above (5EH).- •;•• •"-,';" 
■ Opposite of apostrophe 6n 7 key (60H).\ ,. ' 

Minus resembles underscore (5FII). 

B <» £ ">» resemble braces (7BH). 

See above (7DU). 

DELete by CLEARing away (7FH). 



1 ' L> v ' J 



Some keys' on the keyboard ' perform specialized functions under CP/M. Most of these • ' ' ■■ 
can be modified using the KEYDEF.or CONFIG. -utilities; The.'following list refers to' V ' 

; how these are .'defined on«the standard CP/M distribution disk. -• •• *.«''.'' Vl 



■ Key 

UP ARROW ' 
'DOWN. ARROW 
'■LEFT ARROW y 
■■ RIGHT ARROW 



Character or action g enerated ' ' \, '','". 
= Generates AK(OBH), which is Vertical Tab character." 
Generates AJ (OAH), which is linefeed.'" ' • ■: ' :*-• . 
Generates AH (08H), which is backspace/- V ., ' . • : 
Generates AI (09H), which "is Horizontal Tab."- w .> *, ,; 



; <,/4%^:: : >', 



tit&u 






Note. - the above 4 _ keys ..generate the' same ' codes, swhether ,'u'sed "alone, with SHIFT, '•'' ' * ■ 
or with CTRL. This may be. changed with KEYDEF or CONFIG. - ,' i> - f* 1 



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•BREAl^^ ' Generates AC (03H) in all modes': ' 

CLEAR,- / Generates AX (18H), which is CANceL 

SHIFT CLEAR ' ■•, Generates A[ (1BH), which is ESCape. , '. •/ \ 

'CTRL CLEAR \ ''Generates DEL (7FH), which is DELete code. ( ' .', '\, ; 

CAPS ,'_' ''•'7 'Locks/unlocks 'the letter keys in/out of upper case. Since 'there, .' 
'.-,' "." -'','*'- l >.' ls nn visual indication of the state of the lock' a short "beep" is'. 
• '- "given when the lock 'goes "on", i.e. all upper case letters/ "•■ , , 



.. The functions keys (F1.F2, and F3) perform a special function "in Montezuma, ''Micro;" 

CP/M. Each- one can be programmed to generate from- 1 to .10 characters. Iri the copy/"' 

'of CP/M that we shipto.you the keys are defined according to the following table". •If'.-'" 

_ you create a CP/M, system using MOVCPM or SYSGEN 'the function keys will .simply •' 

^announce-,their ;; names, when "pushed.f. Use, KEYDEF; or CONFIG ;tb define 'them^for Syoufi%>" 

own purposes. ! . *-' - .''.-.,. ' . < ,,".*■' 



#; rFunctioh^ke'y -^ 
>.F1 ■' -, / 

' F2 "■-"- - 

F3* : 
' /SHIFT plus Fl 
',; SHIFT plus F2 ; x 
' ''"SHIFT plus F3 

CTRL plus Fl 
.' . CTRL plus F2 

CTRL plus F3 . 



yCommarid-vdefln'itlon' ; 

.DIR A: <ENTER> ' 
DIR.B: <ENTER> '. 
DIR M: <ENTER>* ' 
PIPA:=> *> ' 

«PIP,B:= ; ; : :' ' 

^'"'' *?*/' ' V 5i ' ^ 't~<iy * JV VHw, 

PIP M:= 
DUP<ENTER> 
:' CONFIG <ENTER>' 
STAT , ' 



?:4-^'*t0XW 



■: > ' , "-v , . t- 



'.&*■' - i -'•'*.' 



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Manual Revision v #2.30 : 4 



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; • f , V-Several .'contrf odes :are';recognized by CP/M when typing^in commands. These c 
' , - "may also work ^j|ogfams : which' use/the built-in CP/M keyboard functions. The foll^^^g.; 
, table lists the c^PI which you can use: ' 

! »'■-, ''Code ' ". ( , Function " ' l ';_'- . . . 

• • '• AC or BREAK' -Perform a CP/M Warm Boot (Reload CP/M from disk) 
: - ( ' AE '• - -r • „ "' Start a fiev) line , ', • ' 

! • ■ AH or . ; Backspace and delete character to the left of cursor 

J \ „.'■; LEFT ARROW , . , ,'. * ' ? ■ ] ' . ' 

' ''- '.•*',.',• AI or'i, 1 , .', ■ ,", Tab 8 columhs' - to the right - * 

■' '-;' RIGHT ARROW, _/«..,">'_" • , ' " • 

; .; s ' \\AJ or ' ' >> End current line (Same as AM) '-" < " " ; 

, '"* ' . DOWN ARROW / '> , ,_ - •., >• .-.--• , . -. ,. . ^ 

< .. ... AM or ENTER End the current line • . , . , ' ,> \ , '", 

'>''.yiP . '' *" Tirrn printer on or off (toggle) *' * ' \ ' V '' 

; < "« AR ' .; " Redisplay current line , ' 

' ■ '"• AS ' • '\ -,. Stop display on screen and wait for another key , ' • 

■ ; • , ' > Resume display on any key but AC „ . . i . , 

' • •> ' AU ' - .' ... • Delete aline (by starting over on the next line) ' . . 

: ( : AX or CLEAR Erase the current line and start over/ • " •' „•' _ 

AZ ' , . End input from'CON: to PIP and ED '•. ,, '■ '>- ' 



■.*•< VK.J.I; 



"'€ 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2.;;/, ..Manual Revision #2.30 Page 12 



c 



6. VIDEO CONTROL CODES .;■ . ■ '"-.' 

•JThe. Video Display driver in Montezuma Micro CP/M responds to; the same control : codes '; 
'as the Lear-Siegler ADM-3AVterminal.. This is ,a very popular terminal and is; the; one,:; 
.you select when asked for your terminal type during the install procedure of rnostCP/M;{ 
; application : programs. ,. : We .have: added nine • additional., codes (indicated below\by !*')i 
v: to ! handle the ^situationsithat -we; have encountered where standard ADM-3A codes were. 
:4nsiifficient.,The following control codes and sequences implemented: '; ' _ 

'' ' Code name, , ' - Symbol '. 'Description ' _ " • ' - •■ ,*;''-*,>.*>'''' 

-,' Bell 1 ,,-' BEL ' Control G 07 hex ' . '>''. "; 

" -■ < ''"*•.'' Sound the hell (beeper). , * ,.,,;- - ' : 

■ Backspace . BS ; Control H ' 08 hex ■ ,>--'•" ** ; ' , s .','.' 

, ,• ' "" < Move the cursor non-destructively one . '•"<.'■: . ■ ,^ 

■ " * • > character position to the left. '•'• - ■ '',•.'""''' ' "'. 



;Tab ; 



'TAB, .... Control I'- '' 09 hex.'-,' .; ''*■ . 
":'•} •• . ' ' f{ Move the cursor non-destructively .to the 
t.V'/^j ,''' 'next tab stop (every ,8 column's)/ ■ .. . 



Linefeed ' V, LF, "> ■ ,. Control J , 0A hex «"' „;, 

' 4 . , Move the cursor non-destructively down one ] 

'■ ,' '• '• line (scroll if on last line). ' ', • 



-Vertical tab ' 'VT-: 



Formfeed . . ,-.- • FF 



^Return , ,>' ■ ,CR- 



'Cbntrol'K OB hex ', . ' 

Move the cursor hori-destructively up one .'* ' 

line (no action. if on top line). .;e.' A • ■ 

Control L L ' ' 0C hex " - - ' .. " "■ 

.'Move the cursor 'non-destructively "one" ;. y ; 

character position to the right. ' , > 

^Control M " ... • ; ; ■■•0D hex* ' ;V -V, , ;' t - •',/ /■ \; \ .**' 
;:Move:the cursor non-destructively .-.to the 'lefts 
* end 'of the current line. . ' ' 



-."'•»"' ;'"' : 



y- v. 



Shift out SO., ; Control N OEhex'* ' > / ". ' • 

■' i " "•■ ? : . "', Turn reverse video OFF on next'eharactefr' 



■sr^-jt '??. 



; Shift in ; 



;sr 



Control O .' , ' OF hex * % ' " '• , 
• Turn reverse .video ON oh 1 next '.character.'- 



Clear EOL ■>, NAK 



Control U 15 hex * , , 

..Clear from cursor to. end of current'line. 



Reverse ,^ SYN Control V "36 hex* ,,>'',- 

■ -. , Toggle the state of reverse video on the 
next character. ' ■ 



Insert 
Line 



,FS • - ControK • 1C hex * 

Insert a blank line at the cursor position. 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. '■'. ;.' Manual Revision #2.30 



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•Delete , 
Line . , 

Clear EOS ; 



^Clear' 



'.'•Home'- 



:Position<V,-,i' : 
{Cursor •' .' •'.. 
Row'+ 32 . 
' Column "'+.; 32' 



Cursor: 
:Off 



Cursor- 

on . ,.; : 



GS , ., Control]. . ■".. ID hex * : '; : •'.- 

Delete, the line at. the cursor position. : 

'EM . ' • Control Y, ' 19 hex * 

Clear from cursor to end of screen. -..>■;,' .;', 

SUB • ' '/' Control Z 1A hex - '•' . 

._ , ' • -_ .Clear screen and home cursor. • ' 

RS , Control A IE hex " 

Move the cursor non-destructively to the ', 
7 top left corner of the screen. ,. " ■; 

ESC "',. Control f IB hex ,« ' : . ,-".' 

, - =% . ' , • 3D hex ; " ' , . V ;' ,' : 

yy ' •' yy,+ 20 hex ' ' '."•'' 

fxx ; ; '';-"-xx+ 20 hex'- ,- '_' {'•',."' ', ' ' ", ' • 

- > This is a four-character sequence which puts' 

.'-_ \ the cursor at row'yyj column xx. See the 

'" ."-discussion which follows, , ,', - ' ■■ 

■ ESC- ,"< Control! , • ' IB hex * 

0. ,.;'/-, • . _ , 30 hex ■ /• , 
•Turn the cursor off. 

ESC ' Control! ' IB hex * ' '• 

1 .' 1 ■ ., 31 hex . • 

Turn the cursor on. 



■f 






The "4 character ESC sequence for cursor positioning deserves some special mention. ".,,;. 
Before sending this sequence :.to; ; the .Video, Display you, should -first 'determine where 
.you want the : cursor '"■; on the .screen. --The X coordinate may range from to 79, and Y , "',' 
■ can! vary*. from .0 to 23. Once you have the X and Y. values add 32 to them. This step /*",,•'• 
'is necessary! since, some ^values might be the same as come control .codes. Send the ESC'* 
■character (IB hex), the '=' (3D hex), the Y value (Y •* 20 hex), and' the X value (X + 20 ■; {-,-, 
-.hex). , - , . i ',.''.,;•' 

'The' .following BASIC subroutine will position 'the cursor as required. It requires two ... . 
input parameters, ROW and COL which specify, the row and 'column numbers respectively.* i , ■ 

1000 ' Cursor Positioning (Similar to LOCATE command) - " ; ; 

..-----:.. -■^;..---'-J010' , V-:. ' Input: ROW=Row number (0-23) '• - ' •' "• ■ - -• : 

1020' . i . COL=Column number (0-79) ' " " 

, 1100 ..PRINT, CHR$(27);"=";CHR$(ROW+32);CHR$(CQL+32);' ' -' • 

"-- .' : ,\1U0 '."..-'RETURN ■ ■ , - -.",",-..- 



SpeclaTNote 

The'codes'listed above are meant to" be used by program s'which'' send them to the screen - 
through the CRT: drivers ;ln ; the ; BIOS.;-. You ;CANNOT : see ,; the"; effects : of these .codes'- 
simply by typing them on the' keyboard because the program that you are entering Into" 
may not be echoing every character that you type' to the Video Display. 



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Manual Revision #2.30 



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V.„. ■ , 7. DISK DRIVES and CP/M . , :j-\ ' 

7.1. A drive by '-'an y 'othe r name ... ■ • .'..,;< 

•'.. The .CP/M: operating;, system -refers to disk, drives hy letter, starting' -'with A: . for the',''.' ' 

.■ first drive 'and going !up":tO;P:;_depending, on how -, many- drives are availabkvRadio Shack , >, 

.;■ • documentation refers' to., the.-disk .drives -by number starting with and going up, to 3,*.*", ?' ' 

'..' v. again depending on how, ;,many ..drives your.;-system has. This dual system makes for'easy* ,' .', " : 

confusion. -The purpose- of; this section- of the manual; is, to sort : things out and attempt'; ,';';;"•! 

to make sense out of chaos. '. , , .,,."»;,'.' t'. '*-■*' 

;» In, a simple, "plain vanilla" CP/M system there are at most' four disk drives/'id'en'tified.'- - ''^',* '' 
'■■ - as A:, B:, C;, and D;.- Drives E: through P: come into play only when,such exotic devices '- '*,', 
\ ,■! as hard, disk drives or memory disk drives are , used.", For purposes of this tiiscussibhV'.we'^V*''^ 
will assume a simple two drive system. . ' „< , x . '.,.,'•' '>!'"•' '-',. 

- * It should be noted that the numbers assigned to the'drives by' Radio Shack are ' pnypi'cal '_., , 

'■,.,' v device addresses that cannot - be changed. Thus drive is always the' bottom "drive •■of''?' '=.■:••, 

a Model 4 or 4D (or left drive in a4P), drive 1 is always the top (right), and so on. Since '<vY''' 

"' these addresses are permanent we con use them to describe the drives, 1 e.g.. physical • '•• t. 

drive..(hwill always/refer to the, bottom :(6r left) drive. ,, • . '. . .' . ''••• ,'-. '',' , ■'" 

ui CP/M, on' the other hand, is much less particular. It does not know, or care, which drive", 
'■ is drive A:, only ,lhat ; it;; cam read and, write to, it. -Since CP/M, uses these labels only las' ;;.-'•. •',*- 
, logical; addresses we refer to them as logical drives. Labeling of the drives is done using • , r 

the CONFIG utility. ; -Normally ;-drive A: As physical drive and drive B: Is physical drive *, 
* •" 1. Logical drives C; and D: could be left undefined, but they offer a useful tool' at the,*>' 

expense of a little complexity. _ - . . ,~ 'r, * 

' "'•', Since CP/M always 'reloads Itself from drive A: (whichever physical drive 'It"' may, he)' "^ ','> 

- then 'drive At should : ; be,; in, 'Montezuma!; Micro Standard, SYSTEM disk format. Drive* B:, " - 
; iy',': however,, could ,be. virtually ,;any. format. We might choose to make B:,in Montezuma ••-'>, ,',- 
Micro Standard DATA, disk format, so as to have more storage ,to work with.' This .works'.'! % ' ; 
, ''' well until the first 'time -'that ■'we- heed to use .PHVtb 'transfer a file from one. SYSTEM; r -,' 
disk to another SYSTEM :disk, : ':Since drive* ■Bill's in; DATA disk format we , -cannot 'use^lt' ;"- 
, for reading or 'writing SYSTEM disks., If only "we had four drives then we could use two"**.' ' 
for SYSTEM disks and two for DATA disks. „ ' , : . „• • ,,. ''\ ,,■'<": --T\-: '•'.;.>' v 

■ But wait! Our CP/M , system' will let us have four logical drive's ' (A:, B:, C:,-'&'D:)/ so* '/',;' , 
, long as we don't y'try',; to use more- than two, physical drives. /-Suppose we assign drives v • - 
'; , A: and B:to physical; drives; and 1 in SYSTEM disk! format!; Then we'could assign C: . 

and D: also to physical drives and 1 in DATA disk format.' This would, allow us, to \ 
; .'■' ; have four "logical 11 , drives using only' two "physical", drives. Such a scheme is not'only , 
,, possible, but the CP/M disks that we ship are configured in this .way. It's a very powerful v+ . 
;;.;> .tool, but like a., power saw; requires a great deal of responsibility from the operator.. ]\> 
;;,:",:!,;., Think about what'happens if we try to get a DIR from drive D: while we have a. SYSTEM -V-' *"! 
" ;, disk in, drive B:. -The, system, will report strange directory information, or it might just.'.' • 
hang up altogether.; Our" point is that you can, call the same physical drive by more' than! 
'.'.: one logical drive name,- but you have to be ; very ;careful. Tt might even be worthwhile .','[..-', '. 
.,,:■!: ;to' physically put stickers on each .drive to Identify what logical drive it currently is ]'• 
'.',', being used as. , ' , t ,•.,'... 

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;?•?■' Buffers, bytes, and things that go bump on the disk" * - ' - ''','. 

The basic unit of disk storage within CP/M is a 128 byte block called a sector. In the ■. ' 
'.early ;days : whem,CP/M;was- developed this was, the standard, sizejora fdisk data block,.. ,! 
;,but technology ; has improved. disk drives to, a, point ; where - 1 28 byte sectors are terribly ' 
.inefficient, -In accommodation. to CP/M theBIOS (Basic I/O System) allows all disk, drives'."' ' 

to, be accessed 'as Ihough they contained ,128 byte sectors, even though the disk may 
'physically; contain sectors :; of "up - ;. to 1,024, bytes. To ;do v this the BIOS' maintains a block- ' ■ 

of jmemory;. called a .buffer ;into ; which ;it reads- Veal".;'sectors^which>;are parceled out 
; toCP/M;128 bytes at a time. " ' , > • 

."Many things have been , 'done "to streamline this process, 'thereby' making CP/M more"."*'''"' 

efficient:; i One thing ,:the:;BIOS does in this" regard is to always check the buffer .before V 

reading a -sector, to' see if At he"., required 'sector.'- is already :iri- the buff er.'lf it is/ f no*ea : d?!S?l 

-needs to-rbe. done and the -sector .may. be .given to',CP/M immediately. This is a great'- S 

;time-saver,;but it does;create some situations thai need to be mentioned." . •■ , ; "-' ; j.; : . ""A; 

Suppose -you have a stack of ' diskettes, one of which' contains a program' 'called.'-". 
;; ZORT.COM. You don't know which disk , the program is on, so you stick one in, drive ■/ 

B: and. type DIR,B:.,CP/M displays the directory, which contains only'a single file. called '"* 
^FARKLE.TXT. You. take -.that, disk; out/ put' in' another one," and type DlR -B: again. Again ' 

you get.only;a single. , file ' called FARKLE.TXT.. You" repeat the process for nlne> more *."',; 
. : ..;disks 'and get: nine.,m6fe FARKLEs." ''What happened? Has VornVthing'-'mysterJously/'cioned v 
■■FARKLE.TXT onto all your disks? « - , ' ' -' ' . ,-',■,,„"■< 

.''.,.:. '-$'.■ ■ ' • • : 1 ''.::". ":" l "v,;! \ ,'^r ''/-':■'/ '/.':■' 

If you were paying 'close attention you would have noticed that drive B: was accessed'.. .' 
4 only once, :. when reading -jthe- first 'disk.-, Every. time after that "when \CP/M:called fort' : ','H' 
;. the. first. directory sector, It was already in the BIOS buffer, and was not read from the\ , '";'.„ 

: disk. Therefore all you got; was one directory ten times. -, >* ~ ■■ < % '■ .?""',-'■'" 

'How can we prevent this .error? .The' best ^way is to type" AC (WarmV'Boot) after every '-'C-; V, '; 
disk change., ; During a Warm.;Boot the BIOS, "forgets". ;wh'at v ihformation is in the buffer,,!' • -V' 
so, all disk I/O .starts 'over/. This is ."also a good idea if you are changing diskettes, since. •■'•--« 'i 
R/O (Read Only) status is removed from -all drives during a Warm Boot. Of course you' « ': 
should only change diskettes while ; ; at.; the CP/M command prompt (A>, B>, etc.) since ""•' 
a disk change, in the middle of a program could cause unexpected results. Do this only" -; ^ -' . ' 

:.;if the program tells you to do so! , ,.'.',-■ , '«. ' . '- *." /'"' ' "'>'■ 

In spite of our best intentions and efforts, not every 'disk operation'is successful. The'"' 

BIOS disk driver" rna'kes : :every effort to. perform each I/O (Input/Output) operation by 

retrying up to 9 times. If all retries fail the error will be indicated by the BIOS to the 

' software module that made the disk I/O request. In most cases this , will be the Basic 

Disk Operating System (BDOS), which is legendary for its ;cryptic error messages. When 

, the BIOS detects an error vwhile '-performing a BDOS function it will report the error K , 

' with the following message: ' . . • • \f } 

-."-,;" Disk error on X: ? ' . . ' -" ' ' /' • " • '''"•',! ' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2.'. ;. .';. Manual Revision #2.30 :- .-■':' Page 16 



' ( { 

.The X will be replaced, by the actual drive where the error occurred (A:, B:, C;, etc.); \ 
and the '?';will be replaced by one or more 1 letters; which, indicate the type of, error * ; or>/ '•-, 
•errors that occurred. These letters are as follows: , ,.'"*» ,"*"jV' ' 

M: During .a';disk operation the drive motor timed out and turned off. This may* be •""*.. •; 
, -., , caused by a 'number of l; things. If the.. letter! M : appears alone the drive' either, h'as;|v\ 
, ,, , no disk in it, the disk is. inserted incorrectly, or it cannot be recognized' by the. \ 
y '-• "drive. Tn cases'/where one or more other letters appear after the M'-you should'".^* 
disregard the M error/ since it was a consequence of another problem''. ", ',''*'**>*{?■ 

VI: A write operation has been requested on a disk which'is' write-protecte'dl,, 'Check';'" ; 
the disk for the presence of a write-protect tab. • •' ■ > ... , \{ " - 1 - ,»• ' «,': 

■* F: 'During a disk write operation a write fault .has .occurred.' This is^due.rtd'a^v'** 
"„-_' _. malfunction of 'the 'drive electronics or the disk controller.' Should,' you Vecetve /'-,'•' 
; ' ' this code with any frequency it is an indication that your computer needs ..to*- 4 !*' 
. , be 'serviced. ' , , . , ,, > iVi"; '»f,?J v.'v' 

• ' ' " ■ • ii 1 '"* " " '>"'"'"' i ^ **> ^ ■ * * ' 

S: The sector which was requested for 'reading or writing ' could not be ''found:, ori^ 

the disk. You may.be trying to. read a -disk on a'drive which'is not" set in'the coffect"/V/ 

' , - '■ • format, or the disk itself may be flawed. ' ''•■.. " ", • >',' ,"•>:'<-'' ,'' 

,, ' ■ i , • • ,' ,'-"* *:y * » ,; ,v 

C: During a disk operation, a CRC error- was detected/ indicating that'- erroneous'/;;, 
data was transferred. . This error is usually due to, worn' or damaged media/ dirt ' ~ 
, , in the drive; or, misalignment of the , drive, > Consult/your] computer ;dealer|f or ;•;."/ 

; service or assistance. , , '-"",.', -'-''> ■Va"HV' < ' 

D: Data loss.'durlng a disk read or .write, Is indicated." This error" usually :is "indicative ; " 

■ of a program problem, ahd thus would not-.be expected., If you get 'this'error, i't-'-c.', 

' probably ..means that .something has gone wrong with. the internal •" clock "4of„your. //; 

. ' computer causing it to run slower than normal.. .,,-,'*'>'".',>;'"' . ' V<V''N,« < VC*'\"V-.' 

..When the "Disk error",. message is displayed you 'may push any key to try''the I/O^agalrj, ;_*£•. 
: or AC 'to return to.the.CP/M command prompt. Type 'M'and 'W errors 'wilTbe successful .'■'Jr 
':on a retry/ providing that-you correct the condition '.that 'caused 'them in the firstjplace./.v', 
, The other types of errors, 'however/ are usually not "recoverable and you should not be/;' 
surprised or upset when no amount of retrying succeeds, ''•".•< .,'*'' * „' v.sf V ' 

,/Disk errors "can :c6me'. from, a variety of sources, but 'the 'most common are 'dirt and.,' ' 
'; magnetic "glitches." -Dust'/ cigarette smoke, and fingerprints are some of the contaminants^.^ 
/that can 'prevent ^reliable/disk reading, and writing, v Telephones, magnetic fpaper clip'/ '■ 
/ holders, and other; "innocent"- sources of magnetisml can create minute changes, in'/the '.',"' 
recorded patterns of a, disk.' To prevent such problems keep your work area free of 
anything magnetic, Don't smoke, eat, or drink near , the computer. Use a disk drive head,^ 
•cleaner if necessary, and keep current backup copies of all important diskettes. > r 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. /Manual Revision #2.30 ; ' ; :' Page 17, 



8. MEMORY DISK DRIVE ■■■■.•■ 

-'• r 5 m CP i^ 1S flrSt b0 ° ted due to P° wer ~ u P <* reset it checks to see if the extra 64K - ^V- 

RAM module is installed. If it is, this memory will be configured as a memory 'd is? drive ' ' 

..banner ann ° UnC6 tM8 * «*#*»»V .'»> D ^e M: ENABLED* XwZ t2e 4^' ^ * . ! 

Drive M: functions 'just like a' normal disk drive excent that <t w ™i tiv „ u, . * > •• // < 

•than .making -yolT wait for several SI™ ^establish whether.it is.present.-Rather" <■ :^u-/, /', 
that the ex?™ RAM i is good H you ^an" o test the R°A°m' W ° T Ch0S * n % ° ™«*:\*\*\*Z 
do it. Just copy files to /rive M: w^U^e^tit, SSlS^^ ^V^ ' \ 

PIP M':=A:*.DOC[V] . . ' '. ""/'"• v ; ,'_ 

You cannot SYSGEN on drive M:, nor'can you boot from It CONVir „,'m'V, *'-n'' '"•''?' ' '■ " : "' 



^t* ^ * iV^ j <' * _) 



^^^ 



■'is-** , ' 



^. 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ' Manual Revision #2.30 Page 18 



9. DISK FORMATS '.,-. '. ;, -,' 

' ' ' 9.1. T he Philosophy - • , ?'• ■,,'-,'. ,'f*'" : 

. One of the most popular features of Montezuma Micro CP/M is Its ability to read;* write,?'"-, 
.. ' ;• and format diskettes in, formats with computers made by a wide variety of manufacturers. "' v 

' ', , ' The list; of formats supported has. grown, to, the point that it how changes . almost: on' : ; * 
' ' ., 'a daily basis. ,To' simplify ;maintenance, to this list, -and also allow you to add your-'own^ 
formats to it,i we have moved all format information into a disk file. .,'•,'.• 

" >. This file, DISK.FDF, is 'included on your CP/M master disk and is used only' by CONFIG;.-'. 

• ; . (system CONFIGiiration utility), and. DUP (Disk 'Utility Program). Both. of .these .programs:"'?' 

, ' ,- Y ,, are capable of functioning. if the DISK.FDF file is not available, since the sixteen" standard" '■ 

\ ;,• ;;, Montezuma Micro disk .formats are built into ..the -programs. Although there .is',no'-.!llmit<\ 

, . ' to how many formats may be stored in this file, only the first 112 will be -used by'DUPl'.,; 

, ,. , ,,or CONFIG. 'This is not a limitation, however,- 'since' it is possible to .■have mofe'.than'VJ 

one disk, format file. '- .' ,-., h _■-' : , - * ' .-, :*»«.L{*-,„ f - ,,/, 

; ' ' , 't ' ' > ' • ' <n - f * » *V, 

When either DUP "of CONFIG' is run it looks' for DISK.FDF on 'the "default' drlve'.*'lf"a ) '; 

drive number 'or file name is specified in the command line then the utility will' use "' 

' that drive or file name instead. The following examples illustrate how this works:'"^-'-^-, •■: i. : ; 

Command line ' Format file & drive used ' '. . ' '"" ,.',' " '\' * '-*■<■ 

/""* . ' DUP_ ','. ' ' DISK.FDF on the current drive ' ; U ' \'°'vK"\V?^V ?= 

V, ' CONFIG Br). ,■",--_ . DISK.FDF on drive B: -".,.' '- " ' V ' '- ''-':.;.' H" -T^\ ] 

DUPMYDEF *;,, MYDEF on the current drive _ - , /-.//, 

DUP i;YOURDEF.VSl YOURDEF.VSl'on drive B:*' - / ' '" 

-" )'" "" CONFIG A;' \ -' ' ",A on the curren't'drive (At'would be drivel) "'*-%; ^ ,\\- -" 

■ Each drive '"remembers 8 what format "is 'assigned tb)it by -the position, of the -format 
* ■ in the file. -That means if you change, the file, or, use a different file thanjw'as'-usedjn^ 
GONFIG the' namerof the format will change.;. Suppose '-we have three' formats Vln* our 
DISK.FDF file: ' _ •• - , '-.;;'- ; 

, Albatross 420 (40T, SS, DD; 156K) '' - ' - ,' ; , ' ' :; -,'; " 

'Muckup 250 (35T, DS,DD, 325K) " ' -' . ' 

ZuluIV (40T, SS, DD, 188K) ,\" ' _; '' V \\.' 

*'•»'' ' j. 1 ' * '' 

,, ■ * , , ;•;, We assign* the Albatross: format to drive 'A:, then delete" "it from the' DISK;FDF.vfile; 

* Later we'run DUP and are surprised to' find that drive A: is now using Muck'up'format.v: 

', The reason? We; assigned; the, .'first entry in the file' to drive :A:;- and then .deleted -the ■• 

', first entry. That made Muckup the first entry, which is what drive" A: was assigned.- \ y . > ' 



■ ./*****" 



;&§?"*? 


■ffitMs 






Stejs; 


?S0f 




"SX 


«?4S| 


$0?$? 


~ : ^Pi 


^ 


kk* 


"^^ 


: >>v,;.< 






2.V. »,»: 


"MI" 


£*"£ • 


■ 


3S* 


%$¥; 


Wk 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ' Manual Revision #2.30 . V ; ; Page 19; 



'Jm\i 



In designing tn!s file system -'we considered giving each format its; own number,5c the !_. 
.'above problem could not occur. This raised, even more problems, however. .Who' assigns;- 
■'•■'the. 'numbers?. What happens if .we run out of numbers? .What if I don't want the' formats; 

: : that. are provided on my disk? As a result ;we gave up, on .the. number- idea and :decided;j 

to let, each user tailor the format; file tomeet'his or her own needs. To prevent problems,'; 

,;just remember, to., run- CONFIG; after, each change to. the .format, file .to'make. sure 'that/ 

.each drive is configured the way, that you "want it. • , . ;' ,; , ' ,- '', ', 



' 9<2. ; M6intezujTi_a_Startiai^P^ ' , : '- * ,: 

As:, previously. mentioned there are sixteen standard Montezuma Micro .disk formats-",'/-' 
;,whichvare available, for.use 'by' CONFIG and DUP even. If .the; DISK. FDF file is not.-In"": 7 '^ 
> general. theyjf all into two : classes:,SYSTEM disk 'formats and DATA disk formats. SYSTEM-' ., v 'fi 
disk.uformats. reserve the, first'^two tracks. for storage of -the .'.'CP/M operating system,-- > _ r 
which is placed. there using either , -the SYSGEN or the CONFIG utility'.; DATA disk formats '/,'*;"/ 
have no-. reserved tracks;- and -cannot 'be , -used to make bootable. 'disks. The various,- \[ : ; " .' 
? combinations possible with';, 40, and .80: track drives and single and double sided/drives .i.V'''-; 
; account for the sixteen formats available. The first 8 of these formats are the Standard". -* ','/ 
SYSTEM and. DATA, formats/while the second 8 are the Extended; SYSTEM and SUPER "' 
-DATA ..formats that .offer/much more. storage than their Standard .counterparts. See", ' _. 
Configuring Non-standard SYSTEM Disks ' for . information on ci eating a disk in the". 
Extended SYSTEM disk format.. Please note that i.such disks will require loading 'the* '*,.. 
Model m : ROM image to ;be booted on a Model 4P due to their use of 512 byte sectors" " \" 
,:,which,the4P interprets as being a Model III disk. ■ ' 



r 



'■;,■■'■ ' '*,'»' f* 1 ' J** 4 "^' 



9.3.; Rolling Your Own 



Tt;is unlikely that any one user will need or want ALL the formats that we have provided 4 {>, ' ', 
in. DISK. FDF. Some of ,.them,.-are so exotic.:that there may not, be ANYBODY., who wants I;* ; • ^ 
them. We have arbitrarily', placed thenV in', the '-.file; in alphabetical order ..by .the' name"-/"' f\V.', , 
of -the .manufacturer! ! As : "the''list-- ; grows longer we may have^toVuse/multiple files, -In' .' »\- 
any case you may edit '-'the;- file', using t-ED.COM, or a more /capable editor, to remove'' , • 
entries you don't want or;to, move -those used -most often to the front of the list. You*.."" " 
might, also add some of .your own ^format's,- using the guidelines which follow.; Whatever < ( 
you do, please do It on a BACKUP copyof your .CP/M disk so 'you don't destroy the one ~; * < t . 
that we. shipped, you! Bear in, min'd;that erroneous formats, in the DISK. FDF file will'' , . 

.simply be ignored without .•comment, so '-if the format that you .added doesn't show up"','/ ,,".' 
in the CONFIG menu check it overcarefullyforerrors. , ."; , 

Every format in the file has three lines, each terminated by a carriage return and, line 
feed. (This is consistent with nearly all "big name" word processors, as well' as good 
ol' ED.COM.) The, first .line must begin with a '*'.. followed by .one, -to sixty characters , ; 

of .descriptive information.) We. have chosen 'to. put. the,, manufacturer's ;name fi.model 
first, .followed by, the .specifications In parentheses. Here we list -the number of tracks," 
single or double sided, single or 'double density, and the capacity in kilobytes. For example, •. ,' . 
standard Montezuma .SYSTEM format .is listed as ;(40T, SS, DD,-;170K). You need not' ; *' 
.follow this convention, since this text is displayed without regard for content. ' " ■-, ' . 

.- ; -'".Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ;;;-'.". Manual Revision #2.30 .;,- , ,. Page 20 ., : ' v , : / 



V 



Generate the second .line will require the services of a nonuine CP/M soJ^fciro "guru".'"' 
It coni^P the information that goes into the Disk Parameter. Block (DPB^P, the BIOS/,' 
along with some other things that the BIOS likes to. know. If you are not a water-walking > 
bit fiddler it Is recommended that you skip to the next section. .The format of this second ,'- 
line is as follows: ■ ,.'■./' 



vN^-,0. . 



^RPT.BSH^LM.EXM.DSM.DRM^LO^I/l.CKS^FF.SPT.SSZ.NTK.OPT-.: 



All entries' are; in', dedmai); 
: items.,,The fields' are: 'v;?A,W 



with; commas, being mandatory. DO NOT, use spaces between < 



Jis: 



' ,RPT=Records Per'-Track/i.el'thV'humber of 128 byte sectors/tfack : = 
-<BSH=BloclcSHift count ' 
BLM=-BLock Mask , " . , . ' ," . / . '. 

VEXM=EXtont"Mask ,- ," , , '• , : 

■DSM=Disk Storage Maximum, i.e. the larqest block # possible , 

■ .. ,DRM=DiRectory.:Maximum, k :I.e';.the largest directory entry • •"■ 
.\'AL0=ALlocatlon vector ■ ' • ,'„V-'. : 

;v'ALl=ALlocation vector' 1, ■ , ■,, '■',-. ; ''■',', 

- , CKS=Direc'tory ChecK Size ' ! ' ;, * . ' -A- A : 

.; OFF=Track OFFsel, i.e;-,the number of reserved tracks - . ' '.'" ' "'■■;■ 
■ SPT=Sectors Per Track, i.e. the" number of "real" sectors -"*'•' ■■ 
i SSZ=SectorSiZe code; 0=128, 1=256, ?=5n, 3=1024 - ' *','.<• ■ 
: NTK=The Number of, TracKs required (35, 40, 77, or 80)' ' ' ', ' 

v : OP,T=OPTion bits, i.e.'. value. of 8 bits ". , ' . ,. . • , '' v\ 



'■'^■Si 



*K-%' 



C^v 



m- 









Pit 



: Usage'; 



Density required (0=Single, l=Double) •* • . ' .■/-;• ., 

,:6 ,,'.. Sides recruired (0=Single, l=Double) , ;' . , ■ .- V-.; '•'/■ " ,' : 

5 - Reserved - leave as . % _ / " • ' - , _' 

4 Data status (0=Normal, l=Inverted) '" *' " " * V". ?"'•'',' 

■ Note - only Intertec Superbrain Is known to use inverted data. 

3 Double-sided sector bias - ' ; • * ,,-._' 

0=Sector numbering same on both sides' ■, - / - \ ,„ ,<-.'"*.< 

■ l=Sector numbers on side 1 continue from 'side 4'; '"" /'"; 

2 ,. Double-sided track numbering ■, ,, , .''-7 • ', •'.'.'"' 

" 0=Track number same on both sides ' ', , , • v;l.?'? 

l=Track number increments on side change" ,"> / 

:l Side alternation on double sided drives *, . ' ; >',''" 

.;,.; ■.0=Use*both sides before changing tracks , •' , ' "., „ •. 

'•'.', l=Use" all of side 0,- then use :side 1 . '> , "' - 

,' Disk sidel. usage if OPTion bit 1 is 'set to 1 * / . .',",. „ ;• 

; 0=Use slde f Tstarting at track £ go Upwards »,?, ' . 

, , l=Use slde''.i starting "at last track &'-go downwards to 

.',* Bits OS ,1 effective only if EXBIOS active, - 



:■ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ••■■■': 



^ 7 , 






Wj.'iS$*J 



W0; 



$S# 



The third line consists of ; the', numbers of the true sectors in 'the order that <' they , are ,' ; 
to be accessed in, commonly referred to as the "interleave." There should be as many ' 
entries here as Indicated in, SPT, above, but; in no ;case should there be more than 30 <: 
entries. It is also very important that the lowest numbered sector on the track * l be listed .' '' 
first.. If the format uses no interleave (usually due to formatting the disk with ^sectors / 
in Interleaved sequence) enter the sector numbers in, consecutive order. -» - -,-' ?-^ s V' '>"■ 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2> 



Manual Revision #2.30. 



Page 21 



'/,-' '. '■ 



Here is an example of a completed format definition for the Montezuma Micro Standard 
.SYSTEM disk format: ... . . .,.-.,. '':•,' 

(Line 1) , *Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM (40T, SS, DD, 170K) • ' ' '';',-. , "*,-, 

(Line 2) -;■ 36,4,-15,1,84, 127,192,0,32,2,18,1, 40,128 , :. . t ,„,' ' - ; - ', '. t ,r-' ' i,*'?' : ,' 
(Line 3) . l # -3,-5;7 r 9,li;-13,15,-l-7,2,'4,6,8;10/] 2il4,16;18 ' • ' • • A'"..* ■•"•i*" 

•■-'. .■'■.'■ i. :'.•' "• '.;»'''<'"./. ■'■'• ■'•'.\v..''.V>V-'-'v'' - .-:v'J''-"' '■-'• .'-.V.- .'■• ■■■••'■.;•.• - .- :■■■,■.■.•■ .;,'•. .*.'-«*" ■':t,-:^ i [\,-S','.i-''':':-^-'-'-'.>''- £ : \&i:'^\ : *:&i¥;i'-*S'*-&&& 

.Double- sided disk formats ".may "present' some problem's.', The! Montezuma' Micro BIOS' ;-.\,. 
.regards the double-sided disk as having twice as many tracks as It really has, with the '.. :' 
'/even .tracks : beingon:side.;0:andthe.:odd,tracks being on side 1. This is a fairly "common /■<"/•" 
method ;and; 'is -used by- many .other-formats. -Some manufacturers, however, double the,,",; : 
.;RPT.valu"e;and^use a. sector.;:out^of.',rarige';as. the', signal to change sides. Such formats v -/ 
/can be.usedif you simply, enter; RPT as "half the value that is used on the original machine." ^"^ 
; Others use all of side before usihg,sidel.:OPT bits OandU-control this. • v ','/<< ,; '' j". :?,'.• 

Another problem is the number of reserved tracks. On double sided' drives we regard 
.■this: value to be the number of logicaLtracks, i.e. side and side 1 constitute two tracks,'-- ' " 
■If the. disk whose format you want uses this value as a true track count (BOTH sides 

reserved) then you will have to double this value when entering it into the file. 

, Once --you' have defined your, format? go intO'CONFIG, assign 'It to a 'drive, and test it*'.." '" 
/Be cautious in testing. It. is often. possible to get a DIRVdisplay, even .though the format *'-'. 
.:. is incorrect. Even more frustrating is a disk which has no files, since "NO FILES" could' ' 
mean-a;blank disk, :or an. incorrect format definition. Strange characters In a DIR display - , 
'.usually indicate a problem with the/sector . Interleave. * ' - — • • _ l , 

9.4. Formats to go — Placing Your Order - , • , ' , ' \ , . . -i\ 

We at Montezuma Micro want to continue to increase our library of disk formats, and " •» '\' 4"" 
''we„' encourage. you ,to. send us those, that we haven't got yet. To get the information that v " "^ 

we need you will need to run a short -program on the. machine whose format you are" •:'- : '>;? v 'f 
.^interested :in.' You will also .'need Ytb' make a' diskette On' that -machine, with'at least one/,'- > >"-r > \ 
liile (but preferably more) on it. -'The content of the files is not important as long as.-. 5 '-' > • 
iwe'Jcah tell by;:examinatioh that 'they, have been correctly read. Text files are good for'' '/' < ., ' 

this, even contrived test, data such, as ,"11 11",-. "2222V etc. , Please don't •send Apple or,"' _,">'<;' 
.'Commodore disks as they can 'only.be read on those machines. ,. < - _ * ■ / * V 1 "-" ■ 

■To run this; program. you will need. 'DDT.COM, STAT.COM, and a printer on the target- '"•' ' ?' 

.. machine., First Tog onto the' disk to be tested. This is done simply by typing its name ' ;' ' '',;.-•■- 

and a colon; e.g. 'B:'. If you don't, do, this step then the information gathered will be - , 

.for another drive and may be, invalid., Then run STAT by typing as follows: - ' • ,, 

i( . •■ STAT DSK:AP ";''•'',::.;■'- ■_ ' ■''"'. . . ') . " . : y ' \ . 't .," . 

".fhe.'AP should be Wped prior" to 'pushing the ENTER (or,RETURN) key on the keyboard.* /* ' , ' : 
It .will .cause a report;'' to "■'•be '-'printed on .the printer .that looks 'something -(but • NOT , V? ; * . 
EXACTLY) like this: . ■ ,,, L . ,. ' ' ' .' ' . . s 



.Montezuma Micro CP'/M 2.2. ' <.; Manual Revision #2.30 ;; ' ;: ',';■- Page 22 



r 



■V 



'. . .-,* «-' 



'. A: Device Characteristics 
'.':-. '■•■•:•, "'.???: -128-Byte Record Capacity 

???: Kilobyte Drive Capacity . . ••'''•'*;• : " • 

???: ??-Byte Directory Entries " , ,'\..:'- ' \ t ■ 

• ???: : Checked. Directory Entries . ',"',•'•"•' 

???:' Records/Extent * • *-', - "•' - ".J -'/■">'-' 

' ' "???:' Records/Block ■'■"'■■ -<*••*"" •' *'- 

'.???: Sectors/Track , • , • ; > .',--,. '' : , \ 'K\">.-', • 

???: Reserved Tracks ' ,. , ;' ,,'■•'. •" '''*"' v ?*"''-\ 

On your report air the' question marks will be replaced by numbers that specify how"^ 

• CP/M uses the: disk; drives, on your, machine. Now; run DDT by typing the - following ^ .. 

• command: ' . . • ■ ' '>'■'•■• ■'■'• .}•>'•"•• >< 

DDT <ENTER>" _ ,',*,*''. , '*■'! "V' V ;>>'-*• ' 

This command, should. print : on, the printer, since we have directed output W the 'screen ,) 
; to.be copied; to the printer.: If it didn't you have probably pushed IP a second time.ancL'. "> 
canceled, the' screen; to"; printer; copy. Go back to the beginning and start,' over.* '.Once"'- ■ 
you are in DDT, type ja the 'following 'program (computer responses shown in ' boldface ."^ 
type): . / ., ' ,__-'"• : * >.-■ > - - , 

' -A100<ENTER> ,. >> ,'-.'.'-' /'••" \ ''■■• /' 

0100 MVICJF <ENTFR> > „ ' ,"',>,' ' '*.' V '• : .";V"',\. ;-'', 

0102 CALL 5 <ENTER> - - \ " . V 
0105<ENTER> ' • ' " "' ' ''•'-•■ 

-G100,105<ENTER>- '-.• ,••>.,''•••'•'.'• . 

A 0105 • " " • • ■■'"-■ 

; -X <ENTER> - ; , - ' ,\ ' ' •'. \\, ''" ■ " \ "')] "'V'V'l; ' 

C0Z1M0E1I0 A=J19 B-F500 D=0000 H=F5E9 S=0100 P=0105 LXI B,4F43 - -' ! / ■" , • 

.The important' information 'is in" this last .line following ' < ."H=", although /the/nurribers'^'V;'. 
; displayed (F5E9):will almost certainly not be the same as the ones in this example/Type *"'• - 
•a D followed by this address and a carriage 'retunr(orENTER): ' • -,,,•'> -v. l,"y? v <' \ '. 

-DF5E9 <ENTER> (Use YOUR number) ; . , ' \ \. ' 1'j, .' ' Z)''- '", 

- , '• y '' , "' ' ' : : -V ' " ■ ' ; *','; \^'*>> -' ' ' : 

Several lines of shexa'declmal Information u will be printed out. 'This is'the essence ; of ,<•_ ■ ' 
the format information.*' that we heed." .Send iti along' with sthesampie disk, to us here 
at Montezuma. Please .include the; EXACT NAME -.AN D MODEL of the computer the 
disk was made on and the .serial number from your Montezuma Micro CP/M disk. Wo'll 
put our crack format.'decoding team teTwork on it "and .send you .back a new DISK.FDF ^ 
file containing your format on the disk that you sent us. - 'Vivv'' 

' , ' ' ;, y \ ' ' ' ' ' ^ • * ^ " J 1 ~L ^> ' ' ' ' 

There is no charge for vfhis service. It's'rjust another freebie* : from Monte. Remember •' 
now, don't send .us those "'nasty little Apple -or .Commodore CP/M disks. Nobody* can 
: use them but Apple and Commodore*. Sorry. , - ' '„ . ', ' *'r;lv»', ") 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ', :; Manual Revision #2.30 ,.; ,' , Page 23 



M^jj 



i ; V-r*'.;/5. 



, 9,5 - Copying/IJb ing/ Writing non-Mont ezuma Disk Formats' 

In; many; cases, when purchasing' CP/M applications programs for use on. your Model;: 
4/4P. using ; our CP/M, it is necessary; to. specify another manufacturer's disk' formatf 
(such as Kaypro), since some software is not available in. the Montezuma disk format.-?-, 
This is/perfectly OK, since we, have the abilityto read many/other manufacturer's disk'i 
formats via the CONFIG program. ■ , .,•,.-. ,'" 

There are a couple of rules that apply here: First, you should specify a" disk format that ' 

is, ..compatible 'with, your disk-.drives. Do not; specify a double-sided disk format (such - 

as Te]evideo):if you only, have single-sided disk drives. When in doubt, the Kaypro 2 '.-. ''• 

disk 'format , (40 track; Single-Side, Double density) ' is -a'tjood -choice. Once .you. have ' ' .• • 

acquired your software in an appropriate format,, the 'following -procedure is suggested -• '*, 

to convert the programs ; to the Montezuma disk format. A two drive system is assumed. ;" ^ . 

.3.. Boot up on, a backup copy of ;ybur< Montezuma CP/M system disk (hereafter* referred '";•,' '»■ 'V' ►• 
' to as the "system" disk). ,'» ,"'-., --,'-{ "• , " 

: ~ ■ " ; ' '■'■ ■: ■ ■ ■. . -•"■■ -.■■'■'■■■■ * "< ' , , ,1 k ! , , t ~ ~ * 

*?. Place a blank disk in drive B: and type DUP and press the ENTER key.. Follow .the* '<- <r 
Yy menu .' and . format, ,the .jlisk:' in, drive B:. When' the format is complete exit the DUP " "• ' 
; ; program and you will return to/the : A> prompt, - ' •" ' • •. .•'.*" •' 

3. At- the A> prompt type;'SYSGEN. and : press' the. ENTER key. You will be asked for' ~> 

.-;; the, source drive; type A. -/.When .prompted to place the source' drive in A:, press the •'.-'' - : 
: . ENTER'- key since the; disk' .is already there. When asked for the destination, type 

, : .,B, and then press the ..ENTER -key; The system 'information will, then be written to « y^- 
the disk ;you. formatted ,in drive ; B:. After; the.SYSGEN is successfully completed' 1 ''' '" f 
and -you are prompted, again for the destination drive, press the" ENTER key to quit ,- ' "' v 

;■*■;-,. and you will be returned to the A>,prompt. . ' '- ,,, . .. .<:*'' v' -" ". 

4. From the A> prompt type the following: . , . \, . . .• . V, •.* ,.', .", v 1 /' V •' '' <**•%-' ! 

PIP B:= ArPIP.COM , _ .' " ' ■ ■ 

, ; This, command will copy ; the ""PIP" program"" from 'drive -A: to Jdrive B:.\When 'this ''';;'/• ■',' •■ 
.- process is complete you will be Returned to the A> prompt. , ' -' ' ; ...%'*•.''''■ 

5.- At the A> prompt, enter the CONFIG .program. 'From the main CONFIG menu select ' 
., the: "G a .: option (Disk-' Format .Definitions) and change; drive B: to : the disk format " *'-' 

- .;- you; want ; to copy from (Kaypro, etc.). Follow the instructions 'outlined in the Disk 
•' For mat Definitions section of your, manual if you are unfamiliar with this procedure. ' 
, When you are finished return tothe A> prompt. , 

6.. Remove the system disk' from drive A: and set it aside.' Take, the disk you just" ' ' 
, formatted and sysgened.from drive B: and place it in drive A:. Do a control C (hold - 

down, the CTRL key and press the C. key) to inform CP/M that "you have changed 
.;: -diskettes. , v >•,,,, ' '■;. . , ', 

.7. .Pla'be, the diskette with the nbn-Montezums disk format you want to copy in drive'-*'''''' -' 
;. -Brand type the following: t • " • •''.%•',, 

PIP A:=B:*„* 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2.. " Manual Revision #2.30 '?. Page 24 



T^^bbmmand '-will' "copy all of the files from non-Montezuma fornjg^aisk 'to? the''-'.' 
Mont^Pma disk in drive A:. When the process is complete you will be ^Porned to 'the , 
^ A> prompt. Remove the non-Montezuma disk, from. drive B: and press the RESET button. •' ' 

"v r: : '.■■', '■■■---. You are now ready to install and/or run your application program. •" : ' ' 

• NOTE:- -When performing step #7 (above) It' is possible-to receive a "Disk Write Error". s 

..under certain conditions. This normally would indicate the destination disktis full or.. ' : 

, -it is write protected.-Some non-Radio;Shack; disk /formats will hold more data'.than can,', . 

.■'■' be put on, the .Montezuma standard system disk format. In this case you must .' put. the' •' 

. remaining uncopied files on another diskette. , ■■* *; ^ ; -„. ' .' ; 



.,'■.' ''^ 












*"« .. --2. ..' ..} 






Montezuma' Micro CP/M 2.2. ■'■ ; Manual Revision #2.30' : ; Page -25 



JO. CONFIG 

The CONFIG, utility, is provided ■ with Montezuma : Micro CP/M^so that /you. may; tailor 1 ,, 
the system to match your hardware. A tremendous amount of modification is possible;'-' 
so it is strongly recommended that you read this section thoroughly and carefully be'fore, 
trying to use CONFIG. ■ - ■■ .<,.*, - ■ .-•■". 

To use CONFIG - simply, type ! . CONFIG at- the CP/M prompt. The program ;,wlll' load 'and • 
display.the. following menu: . . t -."-- • ,•' .,,'•-, 

TRS-80 Model * OP/M 2.2 CONFIG version 3/xx ' ■ 

.Copyright (c) (p) 1984 by Montezuma Mlcro/JBO '.' ' .,--.. 



< X- : .^** s ^i 



Configuration options: . ',' • : 

[ A ];;..'' System device assignments ',.' 
[ B ] .' Keyboard definitions . / •- 

I C ] ; Video Display 'definitions 

• [ D.]": ; ".Parallel printer definitions 
[ E ] ..V Serial port definitions 
[ F ] , Disk drive definitions ' ■ 

1 [ G ] .. .."Disk format definitions 
f H ] ' : " ■: Save current configuration on disk' 



'.''.' ,■* . ' -•■ i 



Select [A - II ], or BREAK (5.C) to exll . 

Your, choice: [] . '. ,-/ ., ,-, 

Note — if you. are using Monte's Window, SYS2M, or some' other Montezuma Micro utility ' 
-program -..which". modifies CP/M /the ,'H 1 -option will not be present in the above menu.'": 
:This ; is done automatically .to •prevent saving a modified system to disk.- To get the 'H 1 .,-; 
option on your menu simply .reboot .without activating ;any utility/<prograrns '. and . run '.' 
CONFIG again. - - •- ■' v ' - - ■'< 

We, will discuss each option in: detail. An option is selected simply by. typing the letter)..; 
corresponding to it,, To return to; CP/M just push the BREAK key, or type AC, ' J 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ':' Manual Revision #2.30 



Page 26 



( 



lO.l.^Pfiem device assignments •• •■ . - - __ 

-Within CP/M is a structure called the IOBYTE,' located in memory at location. 3., This' 
.byte is used to tell the BIOS' which physical devices to assign to' the CP/M logical devices**; 

CON:, RDR:,.PUN:V;;and-LST:„ The initial menu for this option will display the, device^ 

assignments currently in effect: , •' ..'.-. .. • .■,',' '.,'-■ ';, x •''""• 

r . '.'<" % • >'<. ';/.-<* .'' J ' ' »• \ »',.'.'V "v' >; 
• .' ■ • ""- - ' • ' " ' '',• ' ■; -'.f'-r ,'■ •' ' " " v,;^":'; ' 
'-[A] COn: (Console) = CRT: Keyboard in. Video out 

[B], .RDR: (Reader) = TTY:", Serial port input .>''•-' , ' > ,; '.■',-''•"•','-, 
: [ C ] ; ■; : . PUN: (Punch) - r iTY: Serial port output 

[D] LST: (List) —'= LPT: : Parallel port output • '""""* 






Select i A • l") ], or BREAK (AC) to exit. " ' - *•' . ; > r "-. 

> ; Your choice: [] • ' , , »,„,•' '•'*■ '<-■'. ': ''„"* ' f."'' * '. 

The settings shown, above are - the ; default .values that .CP/M "is shipped with. 'Yours 'may ' 'J.' 
differ : if,you have "changed : your configuration. If you do not wish .to change any of the ,' 
device assignments simply, push BREAK ■.to.retufnto'.'the main, CONFIG -menu. Otherwise- 
type the letter next to 'the ;device that you wish, .to change.'. Each logical device lias its 
own menu , of physical devices : that may. be j assigned to it.'.We: will.discuss each device "'<'.; 

'jin'.turri.' In making device :asslgrimentsremember..that'they;are immediate.. Do not .assign,.^...;. 

, a device if you are'not prepared to start using it right away* ■ ^ •■ ■. > ^ ,' ',-.*•;;«:, '**£?■'" ' 

CON: - the CP/M console " ' •: ', '• '• 

. : , ■*;;-,« *£#',„ , 

The console device is where CP/M, and most programs get instructions'.- It may>,:be, used-. -l.-s' 
for either input "oroutput. Device choices for the console are: , " •'_ I ' -. '-'' 

r A ] .TTY: Serial port in S out , ■ ,■ ' ' - -" ' 

[B] ' : v, CRT: Keyboard to, Video out ••' ■ '. /:.•'?' Tv-' •<»*..• > • .. 7 - ■ >v ; ri V'>« -V.-'.''..--' 

'-[C] ; :-'"-. ; . BAT: Batch •{RDR=in,-LST=out) • , .''/'••*...' '' >' " .. ■} ..';■'•'' "'s "'^/> '';, ' 

;■[ D']' ;<;:;" .UC1: User 'defined. console , • ' ' "• '. '•-"•' v", •-*'',* 

"The TTY: device is the RS232 serial port in the. Model 4. If 'assigned to/the console it. IV 
;'.v/ill be used for both input and output. Do not assign this ^device until 'you have configured '. , 
.- the serial port to match your terminal or modem. * , " , ' 

CRT:, which is the default ; choice for .CON: refers ' to" "the TRS-80 keyboard for/input, :. 
and the video display for output. This is the normal choice for the CON: device. 

'.The'. BAT:' device, is really two separated devices. When'' input is requested from BAT^ ' 
it is taken from ."whatever is assigned to the .RDR':'. device. Output goes to whatever*. 

'.is assigned to, LST:. -This v was originally designed' so..;that long streams of paper 'tape 
input could be. input., into. CP/M : for unattended .operation. One possible use for' this/' 

.'device now .might be : to 'direct all CON: output to the, printer, useful when running;, 

. programs that do not allow for printed output. • >-. ^' , ••; • '.yK-'i- ■)-■' ' 



Montezuma Micro' CP/M 2.2. .: , Manual Revision #2.30 , . Page 27 



to be a user-defined console, device.' As such ,, it is. not defined,^^ we "" 

have. set it up; to act just like CRT: so that the. system will not crash if it is accidentally- , 

selected. ^ ' __ ' '.'•"* '„ ^»- 

- ' ', • • - ■ <■ '*' ; 't, 

• '•' >. ' «'. -,'•>,' ' ' ' '.- _\v - , 'J " 

RDR: - the CP/M render dovice • ' , . 

In the original implementation 1 of- CP/M: the ..reader ;was'aetually a ,paper',tape readeK'.^^^Jvv, 

Mercifully such devices havef become ektinct> _but thel.memory lingers on. RDR: .now ;'.">/, w<" . 

-serves as an auxiliary. device/ usuaUy.usedfor^seriall/O.jYour.jChoices are: ' • < '-}W J '"/.'•'« > 

[A] TTY: Scrtol port input ■ . ' ' ' ■ ■ '' 

[ U ] PTR: Keyboard input • ' .-..''. - " ' : ~! . 

[ ]>.; UR1:. User-defined render 1 . , ' ,..";• 

[ D } '/•'''. "UR2: User-defined reader 2 . • ' ' ,' ' • - i " -, J\\ $'*';*• ' & A 

TTY: refeis to the RS232 serial 'port, although only- the input 'portion isHised*. 'Thet'^* 5'" 
1 terminal, or- other device, must provide its own character echo, as.CP/M;will only ^ln put. t<, oT l I 

''from this device. ' .- ' ' * ■ '"•'",. V [■• ff'^tl/. « i . 

'--.,» *.-"■',< '•,'*-,'' i\ ';,. -v. ,.,v 

* v /,•'.*.' •' '■'. '*' J .'';?'. ■,•.',■ 
Since .the: Model ,4 does "not have ;-.a- ."paper tape ^reader ...we have assigned the keyboard ' 

. as the PTR: device". This device ; isinput only; so you will not be,' able to' see the characters fj ' ,' f _ ■ _ ■ 

as you type. . ". . '•' '< • • •.. . '* (,, '"A ' -' 

URl - ^ and -UR2: . are, both "User-defined reader devices.* They have both been assigned \ f '" s „ 
;,to a null device -which i performs no function, .but should keep the system .from .hanging .V.,' - . , i Jj. 
j up if accidentally, assigned. . , * -, , ',-,"'' - v . ' ''«',*.. /.• , \>f^~ 

PUN: - the OP/M punch device , " ".■'""'.•■• 



Xike RDR:' this device. originally referred to a paper tape punch. Now'it'is most. commonly A<AA 
, used as a serial output device. Device choices are: . , , '. » > ' v. ' '•' 

[A] ' TTY: Serial port output - . ■' , ■ ..-,-- 

IB] PTP: Video display output ' , , . . •/.--. 

[C] UP1: User-defined punch 1 - • ' ' V 

■[ D ] • UP2: User-defined punch 2 , •,; ..... - 

TTY:'is the RS232 serial ''port of.the Model A, with only, the output portion being used. .'.•//•/„' */> 

■ PTP: ■ goes -to the video display -for output, since there is no paper. tape punch on the 
■ Model 4.' - • ■ j. ' ' - ' • 

UP1: and UP2: are both 'assigned to null devices, which '; perform -no function other than 

to "keep the system from hanging. , ■ • . >< ; ,'•'<.' '> 



/Montezuma Micro "'CP/M 2.2. '.Manual Revision #2.30 . '< AJ : ■ Page 28 



V fHwr»t- 



LST: - r CP/M list device; 



3^w?viee is commonly used when programs "want td-print'informatio: 



The.LS^mivju« ik uuiiiiuuiuy uaeu wnen programs want topnnt -intormatiol^^ a: printer: ': 
■It is aiWutput only, device. The test for,.LST: r busy; is available for all; devices which? 
may be assigned; to it, so LST: .may; be efficiently; used'foroword! processors -which meed* 
the busy test, such as WordStar',' Choices are: ' ... , ,. * ..•-•■* 



devic 



[A] : TTY: Serial port output ■ . ' < 

[B] CRT: Video display output ; • ' ','''- 
■ [ CJ . ■.■■, LPT: Parallel port output , - ' ' , ■■ 

[D] ULk User-defined list • ' - \ 

TTY: is the-RS232 serial port, used only for output. This would be the logical- assignrnenV* "''•-■ 

to make if you wanted to use a 'serial printer with'CP/M. , ' i ■■ > , . .-'. V 

CRT: is the Model -4 video display., You might want to make this' assignment to direct -„«';' 

vprinter output to the screen. - • ' ' • , " '■ ;>.','' v ,= ' ,; tr ■ 



LPT: is the .normal 
.the Model- 4 printer port 



• assignment' when you want 'to use a , parallel-printer.' cohnected'»foTi"'.S,v 
sort. , , ' ', < .*..', ' -, > -)'». «°': j j'- '' «*. 

UL1: is a user-defined device, which' is directed to a'null device 'driver toiprevent-systern'^'. 1 ' 
hang-up through inadvertent use. ' - , v * ' ,.-."'«• t '' ■•* 



:WSw v; 



\ -,; ._;v,'.\f 












< • I i W f » - * . 






', 'i ; j .' : 









Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. : Manual Revision #2.30 






Page 29, 



i0.2;.Keyboard^pinilions ' "" 

Most of the keys oil the, keyboard- have dedicated Junctions that .cannot be .changed. 
However the four, arrow keys, BREAK, -CLEAR,- and "function keys may , be .redefined^', 
to suit your needs. Whenyou makethis menu selection the following will be displayed: , . 

[A J Standard keys: ARROWS, BREAK, &. CLEAR 

E D ] '',<■ Function keys:.- Fl. F2. & F3 ' ' ,' ,. 

[ C H'/ Repeat factor 128 . , \< .•; ,. , i / 1 , '" r [. ' . ', ",;, 

''.''••' '"■>:> * ', "'.'■' ■-*.' , ■",-, s,»< ". 
Choose the key group that you wish ,to modify, C to change. the rate'at 'whicfi , keys repeat-, 
,when held down, or push' BREAK (or AC in case you have- modified BREAK) toreturn :'*• 
■to the main CONFIG menu. < . ,< ' ,« • \ . ' ' 

If you choose A in the above menu you will get.this display: / '-.- / / • , I.' " X ■" ; 

UNSHIFTED ' SHIFTED ' CONTROL'' '':'•''.-•' 

[ A ] CLEAR f G ] CLEAR " [ M ] CLEAR 

f B ] BREAK [ H ] BREAK [ N ] BREAK 

■ IC]':, UP ARROW [I] UP ARROW [O] UP ARROW 

..[DJ ■■DOV/N 'ARROW [J] DOWN ARROW E P ] - DOWN ARROW ' ' ' 

[ E ] LEFT ARROW [ K] LEFT ARROW [ Q'] - LEFT ARROW . ' ' . ' ' 

[F] RIGHT AUROWII. ] 'RIGHT ARROW! R] RIGHT ARROW 

From this menu you 'may . choose any of ■ the 18 keys to 'be changed. Those r in' the", 
UNSHIFTED column . correspond lo the keys used alone. 'In,- the second column are 'the : 
keys used with. SHIFT, -and; the third, is -each ''of' the, six keys combined, with CTRL. Let's . 
suppose that we ,v7anted'to v change^ the SHIFT/UP,/ARROW key to generate the ESCape " ' 
.character, which is 1BH or 27 decimal. '• .-,.'■• •'-„ \ • J • 

We located UP ARROW in the SHIFTED column and find it' representee! by the' letter? : 
,T. Pushing I we get the following: ' • „■ ■ '■,-/ .-, '„'.• y\ , • ..',»', ■■': 

Definition: " • - . 

.^Pushing, ENTER or /BREAK at this point will return, to the rnen'u'a'nd leave the selected ; 

•:key uhchahged; i ,'OtheV'wi'se'i'eriter. 'the character* which' the key W to" generate when pushed. -s, 

■'. If you want the key to represent ? "a' : : control', code, which'is the case-in our example, you • 
must enter two characters. ;The : first "must be vthe', 'A' ^character," which is generated by 
typing CTRL/5 on the keyboard/ while the second is.;the : charactefjwhich is being used-;; 

• for .the' control sequence. In'our.example we get the. ESC :'code; by -typing A[. Please note;'.' 

. that this is two separate'.key entries. First is CTRL/5; which gives us 'the 'A' character, ' 
and second is CTRL/8 ,which generates the '[' character. 'Note that 'while entering this; 
definition you can backspace to correct typing errors, etc. The definition is not accepted 
until you push ENTER. If , you , type more than two characters on the line, only the first , 

; one will be taken. , ■ 

*' l _ ' ' s , ' ' ' ^ 

Using this notation every key in the ASCII code set may be generated with the exception . - 
of two. The ASCII NUL (null), code/ which 'is 0, ;may not.'^be specified 'at all since the*-' 

-BIOS keyboard handler uses that code for internal purposesV.DEL/ the' ASCII delete code ' 
with a value of 7F hex, 127 decimal, Is the other exception, " We have chosen to define* .-; 
it .using the sequence 'A 0'. Normally A @ .would generate a", null, but 'since we can't, use " } '< 

.'nulls it is interpreted as DEL. ■ , • • -•■ 

-;,... Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. Manual Revision #2.30 • ' Page 30 . ^ 






r 



There nrone situation In -key definition that deserves special mention. ,liWughout ! ;this;i.;; 
entire CP/M system we have made reference to the BREAK key as a 'means of generating;.*? 
the AC code. In this program, it is possible to change, the definition of BREAK 'so that <.' 
it no longer generates AC. If .you should do that 'none of the ["Push; BREAK" prompts/ 
will work as advertised,' Keep this in mind and use AC when you need to define BREAK;;;? 
'to mean something else. ' ■ , , . - '•-,.;,•*> 

Choosing B fronrthe. key definition-menu will lead to "this: ',.,,.; . .- ..,';■ ,/»;,.,* , ,- .' 

UNfiKIFTED * . •"> SHIFTED '.CONTROL'',' ' / ^'''- V v*- J -< r ; 

[A] n [ b] fi [G ] fi - , ' . ' ■' ",'' . '"' ' <\ ' 

;-[B] F2 . fE] F2 [ H ] F2 ■ '. '. ' ■/.',■ \.'; V.-'-J" 

:-'[C] F3 , [F] T3 [ I ] P3 . % 'j.;-,V \. , } >/> '<h:,-^L; 

.This menu presents the nine function keys that may be defined. Push BREAK, to; exit,'*- 
or choose a key by entering its letter.' This will lead to the following prompt: », f ;^V^?,-Af >* ! * ,--' 

■ Definition: , *''*■' ',"" ' , ">">' "•'.'"'f'-viV •"'."' 

At this prompt pushing BREAK' will return, to the," menu and leave "the -key defined/as;;,-. 
.it was. Pushing' ENTER /however/ will .remove, the -definition' assigned to that key a'nd ; 
/make it inoperative. If . neither of these is what you; want then type in "the .definition c: 
; for the key. Up to;. 8, keystrokes may, be "'.defined for each function key. Remember, ."if ■ 

you want to enter a "control code in the' key definition' you must enter -it as two character's^; 

The first will be 'A' and the second will be the letter associated with that control- code.;. 

ENTER, for example, :is defined as -AM, When control codes are entered in t his';; way ~ 

they only count as 1 character in. the .-key .definition, even though they take 2 characters . 

to type in. * ." • . ^ ".',"'■' '-•- :'^r. ,■•}': 

.Choosing C at the Key Definition menu will generate' the following prompt: ,*,";■ '\\ tyx'f ',£■*! 
Enter new rejyeat fpcton , ■..*'""'. 

", You may enter any; number 'from 1 -through 255. The smaller- the number,' the ^faster 
they keys; will-repeat^CP/M-is;, shipped with a value of 128. -Some experimenting '.may 
'be necessary to find the optimum value. ' , - *' /',.'■'"' •,-•*• 



•. . A.' ; 



.Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. /,. Manual Revision #2.30 ,, , ; Page 31 



,10.3. Video E ,_ ay definitions 

Montezuma liUfoCP/M uses the same video control codes as the Lear 'Siegler OTM-3A . 
terminal. We have; also added nine additional codes to' this set in order "to simplify 
interfacing some programs. They are: .Control N, "Reverse Video Off"; Control 0,1 
"Reverse Video On"; Control V, "Reverse video on/off toggle" f Control U, "Clear from 1 
cursor, to end of current 'line."; Control Y, "Clear from cursor: to end of screen."; Control ^ 
t, "Insert line.";, Control •]',. "Delete line.";. ESCape .0, ."Turn cursor off. ";• and ^ESCape'; 
J, "Turn cursor on." , , . • .' ; 

For some, users/; however, this may not be enough, • Perhaps you have 'a' program that 
wants to use : some other '- code, on you don't like the ones:; we have' picked. ; This section' : 
of CONFIG allows you to assign the/14 controlcodes that: we did NOT use as duplicates" - : 
of the 17 codes we , did use. In other words, it lets. you perform a .given function' with^ 
more than one, code. . , , . • t ' 

If you choose' this option you will be presented 'with a list- of the codes' which are i 
unassigned. Select the code that' you wish. to define. This will lead to a display of the 
video functions that can, be performed. Select the one that you want your code toperform- 
and you are done. " - , . 

For a complete. discussion of ;the /standard video control codes see the VIDEO CONTROL 
, CODES section elsewhere in this manual. 















,"'■ ?* • \ Y 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. Manual Revision #2.30 Page 32 



,10.4. Parall e l . Printe r definition ,-, - - \ -•* ; - 

Choosing this option allows you to define how the printer is to be handled.' Please ''note' ■ 
that these options pertain ONLY .•■■to', the parallel, printer port and will NOT work ' with ;< •• 
a serial or other,. device assigned to LST:. --.The/menu for- this option looks like this': </->>-;',/ '< ', 

•' • ■ '_ ,• ► ' . 

[A] Suppress linefeed after carrlaoe return: YES , ;'' '» v»".'\' '"' 

[ B ] , Simulate formfeed (top-of-form code): NO . '' • - - •' 

.[ C ]';;,- :.Patje length in lines: -66 ■ ' ' " " •".- ;W-> ' 

:.:";C ; ' ,. :: '\ -V' ■'■. "*■■ ..'■' ..';■■....■■';-' • x * ^ t ** <"' , ' ^ 

,The settings shown are the, values on CP/M as shipped. Yours may vary from thisW""^ ''/'< ; ' 

;Jtem' -A refers ;to how", the', printer responds to' a -carriage return. Some .'printers, perform \". 
a linefeed automatically after- every carriage return and cannot conveniently be 1 stopped /'• 
from doing this. By.setting.this item to "YES" you ,wi]l 'cause CP/M to filter out., any",-; -J. 

•:. linefeeds': which-. -immediately ^follow, carriage returns. A simple test , to find out "if .you'.,;,:'" 
need this optioniis; to, print out, some text using AP and TYPF. If everything , -cdmes„put-;. : .'. . , 

:; double-spaced then you rieedto suppress the extra linefeeds. ., , ' * ,..»'., ,\ly • ■ 

^Printers 'which do. : not; recognize the formfeed code (OC hex, '12 decimal) will' be 'benefited"" 
by ..option B. SettingMhis value to v B YES": will-cause CP/M toisimulate the 'formfeed Aby^Vc 
counting -lines and issuing repeated linefeeds when a formfeed is received.'' Item ,'C; -thV r V' 

,-page length in lines dictates howrmany'lines will be spaced. This item has meaning* only '•* 
if item :B. is set to "YES". Each time a Warm Boot is done in CP/M (usually .after "each -,,, 
program) the page-length.counter willbereset. *• . .-.-., _? '" «*/. 

Once all printer options are set as you require, push BREAK to return to'the matn'menuK,T' " >• 















" > V.'' v ' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ,,; Manual Revision #2.30 , - :- • Page 33 '• 



.-.'»-■ 



-■10.5. Serial port def in itions ' . '• 

When you' choose' this option from the CONFIG menu , you '-'will get. the following display 
"showing the current settings for the serial port: . '" . ' ' ". 



[A] 


Baud rate: . " ' 


- ; ; 300-;( 


[B ] 


'"Parity: , ' 


, '-'■ -' None- 


[C] 


■ Word length: 


'.'%>?/' Q bits 


[ D ] 


Stop bits: 


. 1 - . 


f E] . 


• DTR line: 


v-.'-'-l'-ON ■ > 


[f.]-.: 


.' RTS line: 


ON 


[G]' 


Wait for CTC: 


"NO : 


i h ] ■; 


Wait for DSR: ■' 


wo 


[ i ) ■'. 


/.Invert CTS: ^ ; 


. NO 


[J], 


•Invert DSR: - , 


"NO ■ 



' ■ '.<> Hi; ,,',." -:■", (' 



The value's shown above ; are : the; defaults' in effect when CP/M is -shipped. Yours may*^-" : 
vary.; Each option may : be: ;changed;. by selecting the letter corresponding to It. Items.''-; 
that may have only '; two possible ( values "(D; through J)* ; sirhply toggle ; when' chosen. The ■-" • 
others lead to sub-menus from which you may choose a new value. , , :" 

Items A through D should need no explanation. E and^ F refer to the 'state of . the Da'tav-K 
Terminal .Ready (DTR) and' Request *To Send (RTS). lines on the RS232: interface. If set, >' 
ONthose lines will be true (+12 volts), otherwise they will be false (-12 volts). , ', 

Communications protocol is set by items G and'H. If G is set YES then no data /will '" 
be .■ sent /out^.the;. RS232 fporti until 'Clear : To /Send -(CTS) 'becomes; true.uLikewiseCitem:i* 
H, will prevent, output until Data ; Set Ready, (DSR) is true. These items may be 'needed^ 
for some; modems or serial printers. The polarity of these input signals may vary from J -'. 

Yone.model of printer -to another. If the signals are of opposite polarity'you can use options*,"; 

* I and/or J to invert them to the proper polarity for testing. * . •,'"'*■ 

.Whenever any item. in this, 'menu ;is" changed the RS232 port is ; immediately. initialized -, 
to the', new parameters. Such an initialization occurs at no* other, time except when CP/Mii 
is first booted up in a' Cold Boot (Reset). ■ • ',: 






Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2.''/.//''; Manual Revision #2.30 , - Page 34 



4iiSss 



, jp*»± f , 



1 0.6. Disk drive definitions . _ •,..". 

Choosing this option: will produce a display of the physicar drives' in the system::^!'"" 4 

[A] Physical disk drive ' • ;, ,«, ,; ''Av s > V-* 

[B] Physical disk drive 1 ' : ' '•'.'■', -<': V . 

[C! Number of drives: 2 "■ 

The display shown above is what is on the CP/M disk as shipped. Jf you have' more' tfianvv' 
. two drives it may have more choices, but the LAST choice Will still be "Number of drivds. 1 ; v v : 
Please .be very careful with this menu! To remain consistent '-we have 'stuck with'i.the* ,*;* - 
convention of lettering 'the : menu ; choices: In' ; this ! menu,;hbwever, it tends tb"''Wg"£*est#^ 
that A -refers to drive A:, and so on. It does not! Selection A" refers to physical drive 
0, which might be drive A;, but certainly does not have to-be.'Jn this menu, which you? ,"* 
will normally tise only once (unless you add drives to your system)/ we are definlng~the; * r -' •-' 
physical characteristics of ;the disk drives. ; •>, > -. * * v"% f-'-" 5 ': 

.The last item on this menu (Number of drives) affects only -the 'choices' that "'CONF&'.V! ' 

will allow you. Set it to 'reflect the number of disk drives that-you actually have>fcnd\'" : 

■then, forget; it. Selecting any physical drive will produce a heading -identifying which I'::' 

; drive was chosen^- followed by this menu: • < h f , - , , - < , ' \u\'^ *;'■>- «.-..;* 

[ A ] Type of drive: - ' S inch ' • . . - ..'.*..-; 

[Bj Number of iracks: 40 . : . • 

fC] Number of sides: ,1 '- , 

[D] Step rate (ins): 6 - .• ■ ' ',•.','■',- ; ~" ' 

•Choosing either item A 'or C.wiU simply toggle between the two' choices! Thfe'type-.'of'V' 
.drive is either 5 inch (OK five and a quarter, so"we,took;a little poetic license!) .brR; "■• 
-inch, and. the number of sides must by; either 1 or 2.' Tor 'operational'purposes a 3 /and > ■■' 
1/2. .inch drive is considered : to be the same as a 5 and, 1/4 inch drive. The standard' TRS-80 •"-■ 
Models 4' and, 4P.;. are '.supplied ONLY with 5 and 1/4 inch ringle-sided drives; .wh'iie" the ■';'"■' , 
■ Model 4D, has double-sided :.drives of the same size. Any other type of drives' must" be '',.. 
^purchased by the user as a' separate option.: Item B^'will present .another menu' of track 
i choices. ■ Sizes available 'rare- 35; 40, [77, -and 80. iNote that changing the drive type, -to.-. " ' 
/ 8 inch will automatically 1 set the/track 'count to/77 :;and it will not be possible .to change,'"' '' '■ 
V it. The Model. 4 wiU, not 'read ari ; ; 8" double density' disk duetto, hardware limitations of 
'the disk controller.vThis'bption-has been ; placedin-the system for possible future use. , : 
In choosing track sizes be sure to pick, what the drive actually has. If your ' drive 'has ' 7 f 
80 tracks, but you want to use it to read 40 track, disks, you should still enter 80. CONFIG 
•.,'will make the necessary /changes for you to read .40 tracks later on. Do not choose 35 
, tracks unless your drive' only, has, 35 /tracks. A 40 -track drive will be accepted for '35'.:'. '"' 
, track formats. <-. i • '» -. ,, y/ , % ■ . ; ; 

Choosing' item D .will' present a menu of track step rates: The choices for 5 inch/drives' •-,;■ 
/are .6, 12,' 20,. and 30 milliseconds, while for 8 inch/drives'they are 3, 6, 10, and 15. All".*' 
-standard Model 4 drive's; will step at 6 milliseconds, as wilL most 80 track drives. If in"'* '; 
■doubt consult the drive.', specifications' or "'contact the 1 drive manufacturer. When all drive ■>, ■ 

specifications are complete push BREAK ;to return to the main menu. 

Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2." -/Manual Revision #2.30 Page 35 ] ' : \'~ 



10,7. Disk. format' definitions 



.This menu option will probably be the one that you use the most 'often. It' allows you' 

to define -the format that is; to 'be;, used ■for.': each disk drive? in /your AGP/M'systeml/Toi 
•make full use of this .feature CONFIG j must have access to the disk "file containing the 

format.definitions that you .will .be ; iising.:On the CP/M distribution disk this file is' 
•■DISK.;PDF;vwhioh'--i£f-the;.;default.;name.';For' a full- 'discussion /on -the '-format, definition:? 

file please refer to'the section on .DISK FORMATS. > J '> 

, Selecting this menu option will produce the following display on the console: • ,' ''• \ ; > , .', '■" 



Drive .Physical drive « current format . . 

[ A ],;0: : Montezuma Micro Standani SYSTEM disk (40T, SS, DD s 'lV0K) 
.[ B ) 1: Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk;(40T,:SS, ; T)Di':i70K): 
. [ C .] -:/.0: "- Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS. DD, 200K) 

[ D ] 1: Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS/.DD/200K)>£ 

fE], Undefined disk drive _ x -,',.. >. >• .>A 

it'] Undefined disk drive '- ' 

. t'G ] Undefined disk drive .' .'.''. 

,[ H J " Undefined disk drive 

[I] ' Undefined disk drive -> .■'■;', / 

■ [ J ] Undefined disk drive , '. ' 

[K] , Undefined disk drive 

:[L] ; Undefined disk drive '"■*''", ' ". '," ', ' ,'•• '-■ 

. f M] Fixed storage device or Undefined disk drive if 64k , • ' 
1 N] /.'Undefined disk drive , - - l , -y/ - • ' 

t O ] Undefined disk drive 

t P ] Undefined disk drive 



,"'■<'' < > * ' 



• '■','V: .y-?-Y«" l5? ''*- ." 



*/.;.-. <■* 






Select [ A--D], or BREAK (J C) to exit. ■ '•.'.. ," " , " ■ "i 

/.Your choice: [] . - \ ■ ' • ' .•.,,*' , .' ' , ."",,, ''"; 

■ The formats shown in the. above display, are' those that' are ,'instailed on the ' CP/M*''; ; < v 
/distribution disk. Yours, may .be; considerably;. different' depending on how many drives'" % 
you have and how they are configured. ■■ All sixteen -drives are listed on this menu, even '' 
though only, four of them can.be used., (NOTE: Drive M: 'is added : to CP/M automatically' \ 
on systems which; have had the optional 64k/memory v addition for a total of . 1 28k. Drive ^* 
M: maybe used forall CP/M, operations, but may not be configured in any way other' . v . 
than.it is -installed. ■•■'.• With the advent of /hard 'disk -drives", and other, storage systems, '" 
it, is possible that yo'u' could, have .'more., than; four drives, and that the floppy disk drives *.'-'• 
might be assigned to drives other.' than A:, B:, C:, and D:. ■■■■•>■ ;. '/'', ;v ' ... 

Notice that although four CP/M drives (A:, bV/C:, and D:) are shown on this menu, only ',• 
two, physical disk drives (0 and, J) are 'shown. .-Drives A: and C: both refer to physical'/' ii 
drive ,0, while drives B: and ;D:, refer to physical drive 1. .This has been done to allow . • 
more flexibility In a two drive system. We can set either of the two /physical drives '' . 
■' to -be; either, a SYSTEM//dtsk,ora;DATA disk 'just by calling it by the right name/ Theseus 
, assignments could just as easily be different manufacturers, For example, drive C: might - 
be. a Kaypro and drive Dr might be Superbrain. As far as CP/M. is concerned, there are •' 
lour drives, ever, though we know there are only two. ( -, 



•r 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. " > . Manual Revision" #2.30 



Page 36 



Since a given disk drive can only hold one diskette you have to be especially 'careful;- 
what name you call it -by. Using the above assignments, if you are referring to physical 
drive as drive ; C:,; then ; it ; must contain a DATA disk,- which does not have a copy of-, \,- 
..CP/M on it. If you were to do a, AC at this time CP/M would try to read the operating , t 
system from drive j' A:, >/hich. of. course it .coiild not. The result would be a complete" ;.•' 
hang-up 'of the', system. Use- extreme "caution when assigning multiple CP/M drives to- v 
the same physical drivel r '-\ -, 4 . . " < ,. ,, < '?<-* 

.Now back to the menu — pushing BREAK returns 'you to the main, CONFIG menu. '-; 
Otherwise /choose the.clrive that is, to be defined. This will lead you to a menu containing ' 
eight -formats and a ninth choice labeled "More, format choices." The last choice'is the'VV ' 
default,- so repeatedly 'pushing ENTER -will page :you ^through %11 the iformats^'available./ .:_'. 
Since the list is circular you will eventually come back'tothe first page. If_th'e'DISK'.FDr/;;'v.* 
file, v/as not r available; : when CONFIG ,. was.: loaded there will be only two*, pages to 'the;' ',..' 
format menu, containing the sixteen standard, Montezuma -Micro formats^Keep cycling' r _,■'/ 
until you find the one you, want and select it by letter:(or!push;BREAK to exit). , _ \>, . '<> ., '• 

Once you have chosen a format you will be prompted\f or a' physical' drive number.. This '^-i , 
/choice will be a number from-0 to 3 (on less if 'you' have less than 4 drives).- After;the*r;,,-.>" 

drive, is. specified CONFIG checks to see if t the format can be used on the drive. yoU'V'l 
; have chosen.Tf -a problem is found, such as trying! to use a' double-sided format on a 
-single-sided drive,' CONFIG will , beep and ask for;,,anothervdrive. number. This process > ,-. 
-will, continue -until' CONFIG' is, happy with your, ^.choice or you '-push BREAK, whichever ' : '^i 

comes first.. .CONFIG will- notvinstall a' format until it Is sure that, the format can, .worki/ v;,,"' 
, on the chosen. drive.-Config will also, if necessary, set an 80 track drive to-doublestep •' 

on a 35 or 40 track format,* BE, VERY. CAUTIOUS WHEN -USING 35 OR 45-TRACK DISKS '- ''-•- 
: ON AN 80 TRACK DRIVE! They can be read with.no problem, -and will appear to' write"-- - • v- 
j; without problems.vHowever data which is written ','on. the disk under;- these -.conditions ; ,:/l';' 
•may not readable "when- the ;disk- is returned -to -its -original 35 or 40 track 'drIve.\The ; r ' ; '_• 

reason- is ;that the read/write head of the 80 track drive. writes 96 tracks_ p^ r , lnch',;,as\\< " 

opposed to the '48 \tracks 'per .inch written by 35 and ,40 track drives. These tracks- are* ( -;K 
xmuch;narrower,and therefore very difficult to read on;^5 and 40 track drives, t , • v ) !■?''■> 

An IMPORTANT 'NOTE: 'Any disk 'format that ^contains a ^'.character in its description 1 ',. , „\> 
^irequires'ari' extension "to'the BIOS "to handle it correctly. This extension is installed using ' 
"a "prbgram. called ; EXBIOS.COM, which is included -on'-ydur'CP/M system disk. It is run 
1 simply. by typing EX BIOS, at the CP/M prompt. .'EX BIOS. .will; announce the modification', 
; S with the following: /'*"',- - '•,, .-' '• *' '- : '.''}'■ « t,: ' 

EXBIOS version ?.xx ' - . 

BIOS Extension complete. 

This extension needs to be installed only once, after" each complete Cold Boot "(Reset) \" * 
of CP/M, but no harm, will come from running it more, than : once. If you use EXBIOS -■ „' 
on a regular basis you may; wish to set it up to be run automatically when CP/M is booted^ 
■' See section 11.8 for information on how to do this. , - '~ ,-}'■•. ■ /„' >• C 1 ' V 



When the required formats" are' assigned as you' wish to all' drives push BREAK to return^' 
to the main menu. ' ' • '. '.:■"'*-* .' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2.' : ; Manual Revision #2.30 Page .37; 



•&. 



{ 



; After you have ''configurecl''\CP/M\io''meet;your needs It is natural to want, to save that -v. 
configuration for future use; Choosing'this option allows you to do just that. 

First you; will be prompted for 'the ,CP/M drive (not the physical drive} on which to save 
the configuration. Enter ,A;,.,.B:;' S etc. for the. drive to" be used. -; Normally', this' drive will 
be in .-Montezuma Micro': SYSTEM -disk '; format,-/. but other formats may be used including 
those of other computers. ; For ;a: format to be accepted It. must be double density, have 
at least- 2 but not, more than ~0 reserved ..tracks, and, use 'normal; (not- inverted)-data. It ■ 
must also not. be on'.' an 80. track, drive' stepping/doublefor 40:track',us^';'If ;CONFIG finds -^ 
.-fault, with; the, drive you have/selected it.- will ; reject ■ it ; and request-.ariothe'r.vThis process 
will continueuntil you give, CONFIG.a drive that it -can live with, or you push/BREAK.. ' •/*-: 

'After the, drive /has been specified CONFIG will .ask for the command that you 'want/ '' 
;CP/M to execute when; it is. Cold Booted (Reset). This may be any valid CP/M command " 
or programAname., Your; CP/M,;. disk;, was; originaUy configured to, perform the MDIR '*. . 
command. If you do not wish to have a special command done at reset time just push 
.ENTER. Otherwise enter; : what/you want. CP/M to do. 

Next CONFIG will ask- whether- you want 'drive M: activated if CP/M 'Is booted-on a' •' 
128k. system. An ; answer, of :'Y1. will cause drive M:;to;b'e activated .(and formatted) each "'< 
.time CP/M is booted on a .1 28k. /machine. Answering 'N' will prevent drive M: from being 1 
activated on any boot. This'optibn would normally be used only in cases where the extra";.'.- • 
64k of RAM, was to be use'd;for;.purposes other. than as a/memory disk. drive. . •• , . „ 

Finally CONFIG will ask'whether you want the CP/M sign-on message. to be ' displayed ,,' 
, at reset- time. If , you .are 'creating a; turnkey system enter ,,N to'suppress the sign-on. '■ 
/Otherwise; respond with 'Y 1 , for normal messages. Note that the "Drive M: ENABLED" :"-.' . 

display will occur ONLY if the sign-on message is enabled. , ,' .- . :'\[ r 

.Following this CONFIG writes.'the configured' CP/M , on the designated "disk. You' will V;:, 
. then be prompted to push ENTER; to return to'the mairi'menu. • 



■\, 



...,,.-^iMba.' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. -'--Manual Revision' #2.30 - . Page 38- \ ':'■,' 



"X» 



10.9. Conf igu ring No n-st anda rd SYSTEM Disks' : . 

The standard Montezuma. Micro. SYSTEM disk '.'is'-a double-density, single-sided, 40 track., 
disk with a capacity .;of.-.170K bytes. .This corresponds to-the standard disk drives in the/-' 
Model 4 :and <]P- computers. -You may have other disk drives, such as double-sided, 80" 
track .drives, or a ModelJ4D, which .has.double-sided .drives.. It is possible to configure 
;a system around, any ,:mix.;o'f;,disk drives as long as you are able to boot <the , CP/M', ' • 
distribution disk in drive. A:. The following procedure will guide you through the'process. >", >/. 

.3. Make a backup : copy of .your CP/M distribution disk if 'you have not 'already "done 
; so'. This is very Important, because Jf something goes wrong you need to have" 
a disk to start over from, , • ,. ,, ■ „." 

2. Using your backup, run CONFIG and define your hardware configuration ; settirig 
.everything except disk formats ([ G ] on -the, main -menu), Make sure, that', the -"disk 5 "' : 
.drives ([ I-'. ] on the main menu) are properly defined. DO.NOT'save this configuration ''. \- 

• on disk at. this. time. ■ _ , , . , , ? , - - •*,,.•'.- ,^- 

3. Now choose [ G ] on the CONFIG menu arid define 'th^,noVstandard'SYSTEM"'f6Vmat;-- ': 
../..to be used.. You imay.'ifchoose any. drive EXCEPT -drive' A:. For the time being. drive- .• 
.,••-. 'A: must be .' : .leftV:.as, a ^standard -SYSTEM disk since we need to use it for reading 

programs and CP/M. Again DO NOT save the configuration on disk. , ,., ' ',■">■-• _ ..r; ; ■. 

4. .At this point everything' should be configured as you want except for drive A:', Say,'.";'.; " 

for example, that your system 'has, two double-sided drives. You would now have' 
drive .B: configured-, as "'double-sided, but drive' A: would still be; set' a ' single-sided. f '* • 
Push BREAK to exit CONFIG. > ' , , . - • , , 5 . v s , - ; 

5.. From the CP/M prompt (A» type DUP and press ENTER.*.- This will run'ihe Disk""'"'; 

• Utility Program. Format '■a. blank disk, on a drive which Is the same ss drive Ar will \ ■■ 
be in the final configuration. Using our example of two double-sided drives, we-would;*-'" 
format drive B:) which" -is, double-sided just like drive A: will be when we finish. When""" J 
formatting is cqmplete.push BREAK to return. to CP/M, . •- , , , t * < - • { ,< y -• 



Now 
exam 



use PIP. to copy all the files on drive A:, to the disk formatted instep 5/ In bur'/ 
pie system' -we.would say: ' • if;'. *\: * <\ 



PIP. B:=A:*,?;<ENTER> 



V/hen '.PIP finishes'; type, CONFIG' and press ENTER to return to the configuration" . 
utility. -Select Jmenu intern;. [ G,:] and select; the\ format to be used for drive A:. 'This' 
format; should match the .'.forniat;of the disk created instep 6.At this time you. may ■ 
also wish to select the formats to be used for the other disk drives. When the proper : 
format has been, set for drive A:, save the configuration on. the drive createdjin;",,, 
.step 6 (B: in 'our .example). , . " .,- . • : ;., (■,-' ] 

You. now have, an operational system, disk, -which should be placed in tiri\'e,X:.'.'Exit . }■ 
.CONFIG With:BREAK. ; arid begin processing in the new configuration! J -*';., -< t < 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.?. Manual Revision #2.30 '"'. .';';/ -Page' 39 



11. KEYDEF 

As has been mentioned in previous sections, it is possible to modify, the characters; 
•produced by . the .ARROW, 'BREAK, CLEAR;. and;FUNCTION keys. IWhile these keys *• . 

can be easily changed using the : CONFIG; utility,' that ;is,hardly ; a convenient, method -- , .' ; 
if the keys are .to ; be-. changed "more ; than . once or twice. It .; might .sometimes be' 
advantageous to -change the .key "definitions frequently^ to ; match' - the requirements of 
application programs, ' • . < ", ' ' ",.•*'. ""•" '<> '-V .','" *' 

'These problems were responsible ; i for, the creation of the KEYDEF. utility. Just 'as;we"\ <";'• ;/,-:','; 
[ store disk formats in a file, it is -possible, to store key definitions in a file. Whenever v - V 
you want to redefine the keyboard you use the following command; ■ - '- „ ' , 

KEYDEF filename <ENTER> r ', ' *./*'. ;, s :' -\ { ( " j 

The file name is the name of a text file created by ED, .WordStar,' or, some other-text * :„/ ■,." "' '-. 

editor. It contains:the key definitions for those. keys that ; are being redefined. Any'legal_ ■" > , 
'CP/M file name may be. used. The file ;name extension, (file: type), if, .not specified, will" 

be .taken as '.KDF 1 for.: Key . Definition ; File. If no file ! Lname',is;specified':KEYDEF will • .,>,. *' 

restore all keys to the -default. -values that are specified in «;the:;KEYBOARD section of 
: this manual. 

A key definition file consists of one line for each "key to be defined. The general format ..';':_ . 

-of each line is as follows: - , _ „", ,_ '",' . 

■ . ■ ■ ■■■■ • -- - ■ -..'■•.••, •...•.-. :\f^ 

, KN stands for Key Name and is one' of 9 possible values takemfrom'the following list: *_' \ 



'Key "Name '•'''".: 


v ;.'- Key on "keyboard ,•■• 


CL ' . 


'clear 


- BK 


- -break 


.'.■■:;■■ UP .. ,, 


' ' UPA.RROW 


• DN 


. DOWN -ARROW . , 


LF- *. " 


■:'■ ! :LEFT ARROW •> r 


'.' ;rt • ■■ '■'. 


;v-^lRIGHT,ARROW-: ' ■- 


- ■■'. Fi . .""'"'=: 


/< "' Fl (Function key 1) 


F2 


' . F2 (Function key 2) 


- ,F3'- ,- ,-' ' 


F3 (Function key 3) 



' Suppose :that : we"' want' 1 to cause's' CTRL-C (written as AC) whenever- the BREAK key 
is pushed. We enter the foUowing definition into the file: • ' , 

BK=AC t - - 

\this example, illustrates :"the ..'only : "tricky" thing about KEYDEF. Please note that the' •>., '/;;., 
AC above is entered as two separate characters. VVe typed in. 'BK=' ( then the 'A', character ', ' - .-• 
(generated by CTRL/5 on the, keyboard), and finally the.'C' character.* If you . think about v ; „ ^ 

;it, control characters have to be entered this way, since .many word processing programs , \ '»'.. 
interpret control codes as' commands. ?When KEYDEF processes: a definition it checks . *'•_ -• 1\ 
fcr the 'A' character. If found it is discarded and the, next, character ^on the line is '■^r-v&L. 
converted to a control code. . ' , '/'/ 

';■ Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. Manual Revision #2.30 ;.'; :" Page 40 . ; ■'> < 



r 

VV,..;, 



Okay, fine, but how do v/e : ; define SHIFTed and CTRL keys? This is done using the same - ' : 
key names as specified, above v/ith one more character.!! a key name is preceded by, »-' 
'!'. it Is -assumed tobe 'SHIFT plus the key, while ..a key name preceded by .'A 1 , is taken"'""., 
as CTRL plus the key. Mere, are some examples of key definitions: ' ' *'- ! ' •'--.'• -•':''? 

'Key. Definitio n ■ •/ Definition Effect ' ' , •• '.',/, v"-. 1 ' ' 

■ '' - " ■ • , • '> >, >: " 

ILF--AH ,."•' ,• > SHIFT LEFT ARROW gives AH,' or 08 hex ", - - -,,,V-"/ ■' 

:ACL=Z - '- CONTROL CLEAR, generates* Z ? , Jv //,. ;\^?; : 

CL=AZ CLEAR gives AZ, or 1AH . ". ' ■:"[,• Z : 

Fl=Hello ■ . .; Fl says 'Hello 1 . when pushed ' • ,.'''•' 

!F3=ShiftF3 • ■ " , SHIFT P3 announces its name*"" '• >' /•'"- 'V *•' ■ ; ' .•/• 

!UP=A[ , SHIFT UP ARROW gives ESCape code (IB hex) , - ~ " ;, '-' 

-AF3=DIRB:AM .,' CTR LF3 performs DIR B: command ' "' .''", ■; V ■ a 
IFi=ERA *.BA»TAM ; , SHIFT Fl erases all ,BAK files . ,"';'' ', // ^ // t 

As you can see, function keys may be defined as 'a 'string of up to 10 keystrokes/ while'; /-, 
the other keys can generate, only, a single: character no matter how many are specified,'";-" 
Note -that control codes in. function ; key definitions must be specified using the 'A',-'.- 
notation. The last example:; shows 'AM', which is how 'the- ENTER key is defined. in a'.' . 
function. key definition. ' , " • , _ •.„ ; , •; ' 

■Using this notation every key in the ASCII code set maybe generated with the "exception > ,: 
,. of: two. The ASCII NUL-(nuU) code, which is 0, may .not be specified at all since the/: 

BIOS ^keyboard handler uses that code for internal -purposes. DEL, the. ASCII 'delete'/, 
;:code 'with a value of 7F hex, 127 decimal, is the other exception. We have chosen to/- 

define it using , the .sequence 'A @\ 'Normally 'A® "would, generate a null, but ,'slnce»e' /.; 
x can't use nulls it is interpreted as DEL. . •*'.-' • A- '"-.,'*_'./; 

Only two errors are reported by KEYDEF. One is a 'message indicating 'that-the" file "', 

-name specified cannot be found. This could be due to an error in typing in'theifle, name//*,- 

.or forgetting about the /default file type of .'.KDF 1 . Remember, if -you call your file " , '" 

'MYFILE' KEYDEF will be looking for 'MYrJLE.KDF', •,— . _ , ->. '\ //•• .. 

"If a line, in, the Input, file is found to be. in 'error, a: message -will "be displayed Indicating-./ 
..this, and, v the offending -line, will. -be/displayed. KEYDEF, .will .'.continue to process the \ 
• rest of the file and, install, as many key definitions-'as-it ;'can;-. No other action^wiil be :/ 

taken, and; if .KEYDEF t was called from a SUBMIT .file' that tile' will .continue after 
: KEYDEF has finished. >' i'< < • > • „ "V .. - 

One' final, note ;.— ...Throughout the: system . Montezuma Micro has taken the ^standard =■/' 
definition for the -BREAK- key to be.AC. If you change that -definition you will have ~ 
to use AC in place of BREAK while operating many of the utilities in CP/M. 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2...:// Manual Revision #2.30 'V,/ ': - ; ; : Page \41; 



12. DUP 



i 



12.1, Introduction 



A 



The Disk; Utility Program, or DUP for short, performs three functions. It initializes'. ,• '•"?,": 
: Wank disks for use with , CP/M, it .makes: copies.; of. CP/M; disks'; 'and it 'checks disks for '• 
errors. DUP. requires the DISK.FDF file, or an equivalent,; ;;See: the ?DISK -FORMATS -- ' :•' 
section for more information about DISK.FDF. It the DISK.FDF file is not available-' "' J. : '\' 
DUP will ; still run; but/all ;disk : format- ; .descrlptions wllF be limited ; to; very: basic format v. ' . V 
specifications. , ,, - • - „. /.; ■„'>- 

To run the. Disk Utility Program type 'DUP' and push the ENTER key. When the program"'-'' -' -•- ' '*: 
has been loaded from drive 1 A: the following menu will appear:* ', / . ^ •'■'"'-, ,- 

TRS-80 Model 4 CP/f. 2.2 Disk Utility Program version 2.xx ' '" - ' ' ' ■.'"' ■ 

Copyright (c) (p) 1984 Montezuma Micro/ JBO - <, - \ .. ,.•< > , , , . ' \ -■ <'l < i. 

I h ] Format a disk , ' , -' ! • •' ' 

t B ] • Copy a disk ' ' •• ' " ; ' ' ; •,', * ',*-/'«-'-! 

[C] ; . Check a disk for errors; , ' ' , - . -' 

Seine! F A - C 3, ™ BREAK (AC} to exit. Your choice: [] •'■".• 



From this menu simply choose .the -DUP* function that you wish to perform (A, B, or V 
,.C),or push BREAK; (or AC) to .return ; to 'CP/M. :A -complete description of each DUP ■; 
; function follows. 

■•■■■ ' ' \ ■ ' ' ,' '"' ' .*'■': 

DUP. will 'honor the disk formats 'established by CONFIG,- even If the DISK.FDF. file ,' 
■is not available. All DUP operations -will take;; place .according to the: formats that' the 
-drives involved are; configured; for. .Copy operations proceed according; to the format ■• 
,of the source drive, but do. not; require the destination to be of the: same format, as : 
long as it 'is physically, able to perform the operation. Note that DUP will not allow •. 
formatting or copying to an .80 track drive which Is being double-stepped to accommodate 
a 35 or 40 track format.. While. this' is physically possible, it will not produce a reliable'"^ 
disk due to the narrow, track written by the 80 track drive head. , ; 

12.2. Formattin g disks .- .■■'■,■■*•■ ■.,■.■■.■ '■ / ' '''.'./;. 

'Formatting :1s a , process '"in ; which .a disk is initialized with' the control and timing- 
information that allows it to be used by CP/M. New diskettes must be formatted before v' 
they can be used. It is also useful to be able to format existing disks. In order to changed 
their characteristics, if you want to make a backup disk, however, it is not necessary 

, to format the disk first. The Copy function of DUP will perform that for you. 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ;■ :: Manual Revision #2.30 . ""'" ■ Page 42 



.•.'-"-V»7;V 



l - ~i " 



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To . ^|t a disk in .DUP ...choose item- A from'the main menu. This wii_^^,;e a second 
rnenu^Jippear: 

Select the drive to format on: 

-Drive Physical drive K current format- > . ■ ■ " 

[A] 0: ; Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (4QT„ SS, DD, 170K) . ■-. ' 

[B ]:.!■]:, Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T,SS, DD,: J 70K) ' . •.„ . l ';.,,■.' ,'\ 
[C] .0: ... Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS, ! DD,-.200K). \- ••",••-■:' .' V " ; 

,[ D] h Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk HOT, SS, DD, 200K) 
[ E] .Undefined disk drive - , . ' , , ':'••" *"': .,-;'- 

I F] '/'Undefined disk drive ' • , «,',>,• 

[ ("3 ] • Undefined disk drive . . _ . . ,. > . _ , , • A ,Y,,, 

[ fl ] Undefined disk drive , • ; ,, . ■ ' ' ,"' • -'.•'..',' 

[I] • Undefined disk drive - „' , • y, v '._ , > ;-', 
[J] 'Undefined disk drive 7 .''<•' .-.,'" , • . - .•" ''-",'' v, '\; 

■'[K] Undefined disk drive " -< '- . ._,''; ,, *" '/"«>'><*>»}'' . 

[ L ]. Undefined disk drive ' ,'.'''',' \[~. /'",<:'' 

[M] Fixed storage device or Undefined disk drive if 64K ■, - * ' '" .-*-' '. ■ 

[II] : '/..Undefined disk drive 

, [O] .-Undefined disk drive . , , - * , ", ' \ \^\ "/_. 

I P ].■", Undefined disk drive ' ' •* , ' - •. , '-"',. ! _., v ' 

Selor.l [ A - J, or BREAK (AC) to exit. Your choice: [ ]' '■ 

By now you, are probably 'asking why -the program gives you<16 drives, to chooseYfroni, '■ 
but only accepts ; A:,: B:, C:,/.and/D:. Due ■'■to /the nature of the;TRS™80.jModel ! .4.-ybu/'willJ 
.never, have ,more than f our. floppy ;disk, drives to choose, from. ..However, with 'the advent :/ 
of hard disk drive .storage'systems it is very possible 'that" the floppy drives* wiU be assigned*-;, 
.to. logical drives other- than A:, B:;'.C:, and -D:.; Therefore y DUP. is prepared ^to accept)' 
any floppy disk drive, no matter which letter it is assigned to.- ' - ■-' •■ ,. ;'.Y> \ -; .- 

Depending on how many 'dlsk : ";drives)you have>:and ! howythey are -configured, your 'menu 
may not Took exactly like; the "one above. Choose the drive that you wish to format "on • 
.by entering its letter, .If -.your choice is a. drive which is not a floppy disk 11 will be refused - : 
/and the above, menu, /will still ; be /displayed*/ To leave, the '-'format, menu just type AC. 
Normally the BREAK key/ will produce AC, unless ithas been configured : for some otherY 
character. \ , . . _ ■ , > • i ■ 

/Once you have selected the drive the following will be displayed: -_ , \ '■-. V 

Formatting on drive H:, physical drive I , L 

Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T, SS, DD, 170K) 

, Load the disk to be formatted and push ENTER when ready. 

Again the drive letter, physical drive .number, and format description may vary from 
.the above. If you discover that an error has, been made and you wish to return/to. the;/ 
'.previous menu, just push' BREAK (AC). Otherwise load a blank disk into, the 'designated// 
drive; and push ENTER. DUP, will then examine the disk/ 'to. see if anything is written, 
on it. This test is made' only in the density of the format that you have selectedYThatY 
means if you are formatting in double density and you use a disk formatted in single 
density, then DUP will consider it to be blank. /If DUP detects something ;ori the disk" 
it will display the following message: •■/,..' , ' > • ;' •. "-' : 

, Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. . Manual Revision #2.30 Page 43 ■• 



***** vVARNIll^P"**"- 1 

This disk is NOT BLANK! OK to DESTROY all information on it (Y/W)? ' ' 

If this message appears check .the disk carefully to make sure it does not contain anything- 
that you cannot afford to lose. Format will re move even, the barest hint 'of any data 
that was on the disk. Push 'Y' if you want to use the disk,' 'N' if riot. A response of ,'N',: 
will return you to the prompt to load the disk to be formatted. You : may also push BREAK* 
(AC) here to returnto.the'mainDUPrnenu. 

Formatting proceeds one track^at a time. When the last track has- been formatted DUP- 
will start reading each track in reverse order to be sure that all sectors on it' are readable;;* 
This reading is done with; no retries,. so as.to catch questionable areas on the disk. ; AhyV 
disk which gets errors during verify should not be usedr.When verification; has completed' 
the following announcement'will be made: , , * <. s > ; " • ' , ■ , • ;, > 

Format complete. -Mo' bad sectors found. • ' , "•'•-',';;> . .'. ■ ' , ' .''.-'. ' 

Push ENTER to repeat, BREAK (AC) for menu. ' ■.■'■>• 

If any errors were found the word "No" will be replaced 'by a "count "of the; number of', 
bad sectors. As stated before, discard any disk which has bad sectors on- it. At this display 'i 
you can push BREAK ;(or AC) to' return to the main DUP/menu^o^pusbo'ENTER 1 to format 9 
another disk of the same type in the same drive. This can save timeMf.you have a number" 
of disks to be formatted. , ,>,'■, > • . 

: 12.3. Copyin£_d_isks *. ' • > - ' *' <\ '.'•'.■.'• 

v It is -always a good idea to .make backup copiesof -the disks "that you are 'working "with." 

• This is done in DUP using ' choice --B: from the main menu. When you choose this option ,. ,v -: 

. the following menu will be displayed: " , , \ , ■ > -' 

Select the drive to copy from {SOURCE): , 

Drive Physical drive C current formal '' .-•,.'■- 

, [• A ] ■■• • 0: •■ • Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T;«S;'bb;<170K) - < : ■■ ,' ,'" ,\> r ■• 
■•[ B ] 1: Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (4QT/SS, DD S 170K) ' ■ • '"•' ' - ' 

[ C ] '. 0: Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS/DD/200K) ■ ■■ , 

[ D ] 1: ,.; Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS, DD. 200K) 

[ E ] . Undefined disk drive . >,"<"* \ ' " '■ " '. 

;[ F ] Undefined disk drive -. " v • '• '•'„•''•' ,,'••.'"."•' ■ , 

[ G ] : Undefined disk drive , . > < "' 

[H] * Undefined disk drive ' ■ ' • . > '• '<, 

' [ I ] : Undefined disk drive ' • , ' 

[ J ] Undefined disk drive . • ' ■ 

[ K ] Undefined disk drive . ' 

[L] Undefined disk' drive :, . ■» - ■ •■..■.■.... :/—.>■. ■ ■■■■•■....■..•■..■ 

[ M ] Fixed storage device or Undefined disk drive if 64K 

IN] .Undefined disk drive ., , ■ '■•...'*'"-•. 

[ O ] Undefined disk drive ■ -. . 

| P ] Undefined disk' drive • > • • 

Select! A - D ], or BREAK (AC) to exit.- Your choice: I ] ^. 

'-'■■'.■ ■■■;■: ' . '■■• ,.;:.>.' ,i- ; '■'[■}■:. ■■■-■':■' ...■:'-■■'■,■ ■ ■ ■ • v : -"-'*l; : ^, ' . ;.v*. .'■' '■' ■'.•■ ■'■■''•'■ ■''■■-' ; : ■■■/ 



Montezuma Micro CP/M2.2. .} •• Manual Revision #2.30 :". ' ■ Page 44 



Select the drive to copy from simply by typing its letter. As ^with the format function,- _, 
there are far more choices than, there are drives, and your menu may not look like this' 
one. Only choices of existing floppy disk drives will be accepted. When the source drive''.'' 
selection is made "another menu appears; just like the "previous one except the'top line'!; 
. reads as follows: • - - ,,,.'.-■>..-, ,'-;;_'' ;, ' 

Select ihodrfvelo copy 1.o (DESTINATION): • ' , .,-..■ • 

Note that DUP will not accept the same diive for both the source and destination. DUP 
will not do a single-drive copy. Selecting different logical- drives that are assigned ;to 
the same physical, drive will also not be accepted; since ; this 'would 'constitute -a, single ; v 
drive copy. Once a legal pair of drives has been. selected theiollowing is displayed: ,'„-, A, , 

Copying. FROM the disk in drive A:, physic-* 1 drive „'-'', ■- / -, ' 

.Montezuma Micro Standard -SYSTEM ilisli (40T, SS, DP, !70K} : ' ' '• ' -"..■..'■ .'■•" -;■' - •■ ; 

Copying TO the disk in drive B:» physical drive J ■ ; ' . , ■ .. .'•./,'• '_. -.'.■• 

Lo;id the SOURCr and DESTINATION disks. Push ENTER when ready. ." ''•.'.' ■< ' 

The first line identifies- the. disk we are copying FROM,'-i:e. the disk, we are '.making.'' ; 

a copy of. On the second ; .line that disk is described as having 40 tracks and being Single ; ' 

Sided, Double Density, -.with. 170K of storage space.- Below that the drive we are copying.- ;* 
, TO is identified. This is where the blank disk should be loaded^ Keep in mind that your;.:';' 

display, may -be a -great deal, different from this one, depending on your disk' drive .'- 

configuration. As ja, matter-; of .convenience -::the~ copy routine' will automatically .use' the,.:*,; 

format of the source drive on the destination drive as long as '.the destlnatlorf'drlve ig\ • 
-physically compatible .(the same or greater number of -tracks and sides). • You 'do not ■!".[ 
- have to configure the destination drive for use with the copy option. This does not' mean - 
■that -PUP will convert a '"disk from one' format to an other. If the destination disk format*' 

will.be different from that of the destination drive, the following warning message-will - 
'•:■ be issued directlyiunder.ithe ^Copying TO " line: . ' , .' . , .-,- -* 

*** WARNING! DESTINATION disk wl)l have snmc format as SOURCE. *** ' ." " -' ' 

.: When the drives and format are what you want then load a blank disk and push.' ENTER.-: '.. 
.-If for some reason a'', mistake has'' been 'made and' you want to: start over, just push BREAK* 
to return to the prior menu* - -. ■ - . >\ u - r« 

DUP now checks the DESTINATION disk -:to make sure it is blank. If it finds something -'- : 
on the disk the following message, will be .displayed: 

..***** WARNING ***** 
.This disk is NOT BLANK! OK to DESTROY all information on it (Y/M)? • ' 

The .'above .message appears "only if the disk is readable using the format- of the ''disk >_ 
we are copying.: That means if you "are. copying a single/density disk to a blank that is 
'recorded in double density DUP .will "write over it without telling you that it is not 'blank. ' ' 
Don't depend on DUP to save your.disks — . check them carefully. This message' is-iritended '/.'J 
-only to save you from .writing over: last year's 'tax information that you will ,'rieedat ;:;' 
tomorrow's audit. Once you are sure about the destination disk answer 'Y'. 

. ' -.Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ,;; -/Manual Revision #2.30 . .."•'-. Page 45 ' 



.■ / ^-. 



Copying now proceeds, track by track. Each track requires four separate steps, displayed' '■'■'■ 

■ as follows:'' ■'.■■■■. > ■."■■■■■. ■ ■ -■■■■ <■■■•■ ■- .■■■.■ ' ...■■■.. ...... .■ ..- 

.:" Copying track ........... . 

,:,.■: Formatting ............. [] 

' Reading ................: < [] ' • - ,'',*' 

Writing .................. - "' ' f ] - • '■ • . \ 

'■':.'' Verifying ............... f ] 

.In the formatting phase, control information If written on the destination disk. Then [..'■ 
the track is read, sector by sector,, from the source disk. >Orice read, the data is written .- . 

"to, the destination, and, .finally -.read,,, from the destination to verify that it is written- t , 
correctly. .Ideally this process 'takes just over, ? one second per track, or approximately', v'-' 

*;50 seconds for a 40 "'track;. : disko..(These. times double for double-sided drives.) If copying *' t * •' 
seems to. take significantly.jlonger, than this, it may be an indication of a problem with >'*, 
disk drive speed... Drives , which, are .running faster .than 1% .above recommended speed", ~ 

;. may copy ./much; slower than drivesvthat. are correctly adjusted; •-SeveraUpther •factbrs$fej£ 

■■; can affect the timing; :One, of: these is .sector "interleave.", Standard; CP/M convention 
calls for the sectors to be written on' .."the disk in consecutive order, 'Programs reading * ' 
the disk can rarely access it fast enough to get each sector before' it: goes. by, so the 

..operating system compensates by reading the sectors in an interleaved fashion. A typical 
scheme' might .be to read all the. 'odd. numbered /sectors 'first,' followed .by all'- the even"';'?; t 
ones. Disk formats which follow/this "convention', will copy normally. Some' manufacturers/ -■ . 
however,', do : .not wish, to place \the burden of sector interleave on the software. They' .: 

•choose- to:physically;.record : ;the sectors on ; the diskette in the proper interleave order,- 
so' that :,the,»soft ware : can -access s'them consecutively. Disks .formatted .in, this manner 

> will be slow to copy," since it-will -take., multiple- revolutions -of- the 'disk to read in an ^, ; " " 
entire track. The: backup copies will also be slow to work with under Montezuma Micro 
CP/M, since they will be formatted without interleave. -. , < .'"•'<••"'■; *' ■ i 

The copy will proceed .until the last-.track is copied, unless an error, occurs.' In the event ';■'' 

"of errors you '.'will be/givema^chance to try again or ■simply'start'bver'with. 'a new disk.|^|S; 

-If. errors /occur during' '."the - verification phase the new" copy ishould -nbtlbe' considered 

reliable and should not be used.,: Assuming that no errors occur the 'following message ■ - 

will be displayed: ■ \ ? ■' ' . '• . 

- Copy complete. 

..Push ENTER to repeat,'' BREAK (AC) for menu. '- ■ : ' , ' 

Pushing ENTER will cause DUP to' prompt for another set' of disks tostart another copy. 
BREAK will return you to the main menu. ... : , : ..V<, .,;:,' • , '*,. 

Beware that the copy command may riot be able to perform a full disk copy on disks, v 
'. made on other /CP/M machines. The reason for this is that the 'system tracks may not '^'H; 
' be in .the same density as the rest or the disk, or the number of sectors may vary. This \\ 

is often, the case when a bootstrap ROM is used to load CP/M. If an, 'attempt is madeljA. : 

■ ■'to copy such a disk one of two things will happen. You may get read errors on the first ; %.v 

few tracks (the system tracks) or. the copy will proceed without error but will not boot '. • 
on the machine that the disk; was made for. In all such cases, however, you should be :vv;;; 
able to use the disk as a non-system disk for purposes of reading and writing files. ■ • 

.-■ "Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. > Manual Revision #2.30 Page 46 '■'•,'; ; 



c 



r 



■v. 



■ J~ 



It is riWFnecessary.to have a SYSTEM disk in drive A: 'while using the D^Pbopy, option. ' : 
Once DUPhas been loaded.it will not access drive A: again until you exit the program. ; 
To copy a disk -which does not have a system on it, select A: as the source drive and' 
some; other drive as the; destination drh'e. Just remove the system. disk from drive A: 
;when DUP," tells' you to load the .disks. After the.; copy is complete replace the system " 
.disk in drive A:. , , • .-,• :„.- 



nA - Checking_disks ' - ■ .."*. ''I,, •';'-■ 

Fronvtime to time "you may wish, to check on a disk, just to make sure. that-all 'the sectors 1 
on it are ; readable. DUP.can ..do this using the, checking function, which is item C-on 
,the main menu. Selecting this option will produce the following display: l - ,. • f , ," ; ' 

Select the drive to check- orr 

Drive Physical drive £■ current format . , \* '• ' ; ': 

[A j 0: ■ .■■Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTE?« <5U,k MOT, SS, DD, 170K) ' ; 

:..[ B ] 1:,; -Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T, SS, Df), i"/0K) 
[C] 0:, Montezuma Micro Standard DATA disk {40T, SS, DD, 200K) ' ' *'-';> "\ 7 ' '>"-" 
[ D 3 1: ' Montezuma- Micro Standard DATA disk (40T, SS, DD, 200K) '- /' ' ; "• - 

[ E ] .,' Undefined disk drive 

.[ F ], Undefined disk drive "'', ■.,>.;; 

•[ G ]' , Undefined disk drive •' • , -.'.-'' --•-./'■.- 4V'" 

' [ H ] Undefined disk drive \ ', ■ •'*' 

[ I ], Undefined disk'drive ', ' ,' - "_ ''.'•"■>,• 

[ J] ;'',;. Undefined disk drive ' ... * "'**'',';', 

■"[ K ] Undefined disk drive 

.;".[ L '}'.■';, -Undefined di«k drive , .- . 

[Ml Fixed storage device or Undefined disk drive if 64K * , . 

[ N ] Undefined dh-k drive '■..■'■ 

[ O ] Undefined disk drive " ' ; ■■' "' ; " ' 

'[P] . Undefined disk drive .v .' ■,•',■*., :• f 



Select f A - D ], or BREAK (AC) to exit,, Your choice: [] J 



mk' 



As' with other/ D'UPj functions, all drives will be displayed, although only four .will be 
accepted. Choose /the. drive that you, wish to use and type its letter. This will lead to; 
• the, next display: . ," ' . , ^ ^ .."-;'"'<'' 

Checking the disk in drive B:, physical drive 1 , ,'■,".••,■ 

Montezuma Micro Standard SYSTEM disk (40T, SS, DD. 170K) 

Load the disk to be checked and push ENTER when ready. ' ." ' 

Be aware that the 'display you get will probably differ from the one shown above 'due. 

to differences in; drive!, configuration.' Pay .close attention,,- though," to the ^description 
/■of the format. If it is hotVthe same as that of the disk to be checked, you may get-errors 
'reported that, really aren't errors. This could happen,' for instance, -if you ,;try;'to~ Check", 

a format using ,18 .sectors per track on a disk that has only 10 sectors per 'track. 

Conversely if you " ;check ; ;'a ,10, sector per track format -on an 18 sector ! per';, track ■disk;'' 

you will not get any /phantom" errors, and the check will proceed at lightning ;;speed.;; 
-Checking proceeds on a track by track basis. - ■ * ' . ,>'--• 

; ■'..,' 'Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. '. Manual Revision #2.30 Page 47 



^ When disk chec'-'-'q has completed the following summary v/ill appear: ' '•"' -.,;,. 

Check corrrpletdBBlo bad sectors. ■ ^ ^B ' 

; Push ENTER to repeat, BREAK (AC) for menu. " ' . ' f 

-If, errors were, found the word "No" will-be- replaced by an error count. Note that the 
check is performed without- retry; This is done so that disk problems-can befound before 
they become serious. Often "a "disk which shows up errors during check can be successfully 
copied using the copy function of DUP, 'since the read portion of copy uses ass extensive 
retry- : process. 'To continue ^checking: disks push ENTER,- -otherwise push BREAK (AC) * •< ' 5 , 

.: to return to. the main menu. • ' ■ ''■>■■' 



Montezuma : MicroCP/M;2.2.'\;": Manual Revision #2.30 ''"'^..'^ Page 48 



'X, 



13. MOVCPM 



; MOVCPM" is a. utility program which allows you to MOVe CP/M to a new place in memory, - 
This may be : necessary .to, install special drivers or other programs that are^ designed' ,•'. 

; to reside in high, membry.^'CP/M ;as distributed by Montezuma Micro is a 64k -system, T "' 
which means that memory ,;is; used .right up to the 64k boundary.: By using MOVCPM ,you"; ; : 
could construct a 62k system, ' which "would leave the top 2k of memory undisturbed. -' _ •, ; . 

To run ^MOVCPM you simply type Its name at the CP/M prompt, along with two optional"..' 
.parameters: ' ' ' • t. . 

MOVCPM xy<ENTER> . -' '';,_' •' ' / ,« ':"/' 

Parameter ,'x' is the memory size (in k bytes) for the CP/M system that ■ you' warnt^'ThiS'" 1 ;'' 
.can be a decimal number, ranging from 39 10 64, or simply a '?' if you'want CP/*M "to ' ; 
figure out the maximum memory available. Unless you have'a bad memory chip imyour.'v,'' 
computer, . the latter, option will always come, up .with 64k. If you-enter the size as.a'v 
number, just specify 2 decimal digits, without the letter 'k 1 . Please note that it is VERY 
IMPORTANT that you : DO;NOT::ATTEMPT,T6',CREATE A'CP/M LESS THAN 39ki Due ■' ',* 
to the manipulations that, the "BIOS goes through to support" the memory drive, a system 
less than 39k in size will hang up at boot time and will not; work. SYSGEN makes a 'simple''*' 
test for Illegal system 'size, but you should still not, use/any size below 39k. (i J ; .. 

Parameter y is either a '*' or is not specified at all. If you enter a '*' then MOVCPM •, 

will.create' the system ; that..; you specified and leave it in memory for SYSGEN. This ' 

;is the preferred way of fusing MOVCPM.-, By omitting this parameter you- tell MOVCPM^ 

to generate 'the required; system ,:'ahd; dhen; immediately install it in its proper place in;'V 

memory. The effect "willv.be the "same as if you had just reset.the computer, with one". 

' important exception. If the /.system generated is not; the same size as the one ^recorded - .' 

'. on .the disk in drive;. A: ",th6n;the system will malfunction- or hang up the first time ,the \ % 

: BIOS is called upon rto : do a, Warm' Boot. This normally .occurs at the end of a program, -.v 

,;or,when AC is typed. • • • 

Here are ..some examples of :MOVCPM % 'commands,:with descriptions of what; eachvone'-w 
..does: - " •,' '.,.'- 

MOVCPM 60 * \ Create a 60k system and leave it in memory for SYSGEN. "/ 

MOVCPM?"'* Create a maximum (64k) system and begin using it now. " '' 

MOVCPM 48 * • Create a 48k system and leave it in memory for SYSGEN. 

MOVCPM - Create a maximum (64k) system and begin using It now. " t 

MOVCPM 24 , .-" Illegal size — system crash will follow quickly! . ',-'.>.,;■ 

"it Is important 'to note, that using MOVCPM generates a completely new system; ;r,That ?v 
.means that all configuration information,; including key definitions, will be set back \ 
: to the default state., Therefore. you will have to run' CONFIG and KEYDEF on the new 
; system in order to configure it the way you want. 



Montezuma MicroCP/M 2.2. ;;.; 'Manual Revision #2.30 '..-' ■ Page 49 



Generally you ^^follow these steps: 

1. Create the system in memory with MOVCPM. ■■.■.'■• • ■■./,■:. ' ■-..:•-'• 

,2, Write that system to disk with SYSGEN. , , - ; : " ,""" 

3. Boot the new system from the new, disk (Using the reset switch). ' ' ,"'■'*"' 

,4. Run. KEYDEF' to establish 'your preferred. key definitions. If you run- KEYDEF without V, ~'\ 
' any parameters ; it ;wil] reset, the '-key definitions to ; the standard values HhaH: - CP/mC v/< '} Y ; 
;: . .'is shipped with. . .-•!"',' 

5. Configure the new system with CONFIG and write it back to disk. '' '',"".",- 

MOVCPM can also bemused to generate -a CPMxx.COM file where 'xx' is a memory size'", .' ^"-.'. '.'. 
in kilobytes. To do this simply rum MOVCPM as outlined above. When it finishes MOVCPM "'• \- ' -'.'" ' 
:Wi3I display this message: '. . • . ,\','-v • v .'•■: 

COHSTRUCTINfe' 64k CP/M vers 2.2 ' * • ' \ ' ' s' ."*■/■ : 

READY FOR B SYSGEN S OR , - • ' '.'---'■]' 

'SAVE 44 CPM64.COM" , - ' J ^ » ,-f ' • 

If you type the' SAVE command as', instructed it will copy the system from RAM to a ' -, : 
disk file which may then be used '.in .subsequent 'SYSGEN operations. As mentioned before 
any disk created this way:,'will still need to -have .key definitions /and configuration,' '.', * 
information added to it using KEYDEF and CONFIG. ' . 

■MOVCPM is not particularly selective about , the memory size that you specify. For'' 
example, if you tell it to create a 65k system it will merrily proceed to create -some- 

: Frankenstein system/that tears up . : the village.. Use caution in your entries' Under some 
conditions^ will report "INVALID .MEMORY -SIZE", but don't depend on it. ,- , 

Another message that may show up Is the meaningless "SYNCHRONIZATION ERROR."' • 
■•This, may mean that the copy of. MOVCPM on your disk has :become darkled, or it may 
have ..detected an attempt to run MOVCPM on a .system, which is 'not the sameVserialV 
number as yours. Tell your cheap brother-in-law to buy his own copy! 

■ If' you "are using MOVCPM to create space in upper memory for special software utilities; ? 

drivers, etc., please ■ consult ..the Memory Usage discussion in ; the ADVANCED;; 

PROGRAMMING INFORMATION .of 'this manual. This information /.could save- y'ouW 

great deal of; time an4 frustration" in trying to get your '.software -to work correctly.. 

For a more detailed discussion of MOVCPM and SYSGEN, please refer to the large manual'' 
.that came with your copy of CP/M. ..-.'■•:.. ■' :,iU- 






Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ,: ,'.. Manual Revision #2.30 . :' Page 50 



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■:'■ / ..;• ■•■."■■;■ ■'"■: ■ . m.sysgem ■ " ; 

When you want to GENerate a SYStem on a disk you use the SYSGEN utility. Its function •■ ■ 
in life is to write the CP/M operating, system to the* reserved 'tracks Of the specified'..' •' 
disk. The operating system that it, writes may come from another disk, from a disk file,- "./ \ 
'or from an image. placed in, memory by MOVCPM. . ' ,-. •.;„.«- , <',;7- : 

To run SYSGEN just type the following at the CP/M prompt: ' ;* \-J<'.,~ '~ ,~\-'}'J 

SYSGEN filename <ENTER> • . 7-7/' ''7;-: 

The "filename" is optional and. may .he omitted if you do not' wish to generate the system'V- "' 
from a disk file. Normally this name will be along the lines of CPMxx.COM, where the.* *• , 
'xx' is a memory size, in kilobytes such as a file generated' by MOVCPM. - '-, • ,'';}'-, '.O 






SYSGEN will announce itself with the following display: ' " ■ >-'*-? •[ -' ( . 

TRS-80 Model 4 CP/M.2.2 SYSGEN version 2.xx , '••''••,'„<• '• 7 - 7 \?>j'"S '77/- 

; .Copyright (c) (p) .3982 Digital Research Inc. -All rights reserved . . ■ " , ,' . 7 

Copyright (c5 (p) 1984 Montezuma Micro/JBO~ All rights reserved > ,'''"", 

;Ifa file name was 'specified, in the, SYSGEN command line then that, file will' 'be loaded-..' 
into memory at this- time .rather: than -the CP/M information from the system tracks/.-' ■ 
of. a specified drive.. In ..the/event you did not specify a file you will get the following.. 7 

; prompt: , ' ' < '*.•,.' • *'*<• 7' 

Select SOURCE diivt for SYSGEN. ' ' ' . • ; 7 ! '. " 

I A,B,...;P. or ENTER to skip ]: * : ' \\*7 ;; 7, i 

■If you are using SYSGEN : ,to record a system'. placed jn^rnemory by MOVCPM then 'just • T 

push ENTER. To read a system into' memory from an existing CP/M disk enter the drive ' 

that contains "the - system*-'. You,;want;' This must; be Invalid ',drive, or it will be rejected. '••' 

'After you enter, the drive SYSGEN will-ask you to' load the disk and push ENTER. The/v, 

-operating system will then'.be'read fromthat disk into memory. . ' r \-' .' s \<; '" 

SYSGEN is now ready for. the write phase. It will prompt for .the target disk-drive -as v . 
■follows: . - i . ' 

Select DESTINATION drive for SYSGEN. . ' . •' . 

, [ A,B,...,P, or ENTER to skip ]: , ' , ' *' , :'■',./'' ■'. 

Select the drive that:you;,>ant'to place the system on.- Invalid or non-existent drives" ::." 
will be rejected and return to this prompt. Keep in mind that a drive will be considered ' ' 
invalid, if the format that it: is using' has less than -2 or. more jhan 8 reserved tracks, '7 
if it is being double-stepped ;(40, track disk, in 80 track-drive), or if it uses inverted data 
. (Superbrain). Such characteristics in a drive format cannot -be accommodated by the 
bootstrap program that initially reads CP/M into memory. . ■. -/ - 7;7''.". 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. '-'; 'Manual Revision #2.30 7 ..\. Page 51 



Once an approjMRe disk drive has been selected SYSGEN will write the operating s^fem - 
to it. Should any errors . occur,; an error message will be displayed: and SYSGEN.. will ;:,_;^ : . 
terminate. This will also be the case If. the system, to be written is found to be of an V 

illegal memory size (less than 39k). ..Assuming no such problems exist SYSGEN win*. ''-., 
record the system and announce a ' successful completion. It. will .then return to the 
.destination drive prompts If .you 'have ..another disk to write a system on select the drive;' " 
as before. Otherwise push ENTER -to return to CP/M. . , .,, . '',',< "■ 

Keep, in mind that the .type /of system you; get from SYSGEN depends on what kind of iN , ' 
"system you started with. If -you .took' an existing system from another-;' disk; then the * _ ' 

generated system will bo ', configured in exactly the same. .way. However, if -.the system ,' '''-.. 

came from a .disk file or from, memory (via MOVCPM) it ■'will not be configured. at all* 

and you will have; to use CONFIG to customize it for your purposes. /Remember,- too, ,-' '„; 
, that SYSGEN only records a. CP/M system on a - disk.; You , will hot be running under that ;,"•'% 

system until you put the generated disk in, drive A: and push the RESET button. , ' % '' > \ ' *' 

SYSGEN does not care what format a disk drive is using, if it has the right characteristics' '"V" '•'• 
to. allow, a working system, to, be. written on it. You may SYSGEN "foreign" disk formats'/ ' >• ': 
for :use with Montezuma Micro; CP/M as long as SYSGEN .approves of the format. This.is.,,*- .;'.•; 
WILL NOT, of course, allow the "foreign^ disk to run, Montezuma Micro CP/M on its, • ( ,>. i; 
•own computer. ■ You should .also mot, attempt to/read .the CP/M -system from "foreign" ; t 
disk formats in an attempt to make your Model 4 look- like some other computer. This--'-V, ; .' 
will be a futile effort and will lead tonothing useful. 



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c 'i^vs'. 1 *,. :'■--., 






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15. ADVANCED PROGRAMING INFORMATION ' ,"' _ ■■'■ .-.' 

While this manual has attempted lo 1ell you everything that you need to know in order'-' 
to use CP/M, it does not purport to tell you all that you might want to know about the ; 
internal operation of. the CP/M software. We have omitted such things from this manual '■ 
because they are of interest to only a very small percentaop of CP/M owners. A complete. '• 
and. comprehensive SYSTEM-PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL is available for "those persons : 
/needing-it. A commented -listing of the BIOS and complete details on how to interface 
with it are' included in this manual. For those who need information only on how CP/M' 
relates to the Model 4 computer we have included the following paragraphs. , ,,,-„- 



] 5. 1 . MejTwy_Usage , ' ' V '•',*. / " '"' .'".'"'"O^/C'-V'.. 

: Regardless of what size CP/M system you are using there are some areas of- memory 
that are dedicated for- specific purposes. The top 3k of memory (addresses T400H to • ' 
FFFFH) is used, to address the Model 4 keyboard and video display RAM. Although" this : ;' , 
map is switched in by'the '.BIOS only. when needed, it should most definitely not be used - 
to hold software which might be called due ;to%'interrupts or interaction with' BIOS ' : 
functions. In addition the last ;1 28 bytes, of memory ;(FF80IF to FFFFH) are used for ,;•'•: 
a local BIOS stack and should not be farkled with by anybody forvany reason! 

The lower 32k of memo'ry.(0000H to,7FFFH) is subject to short "blackouts" when memoryV : 
drive : M: is being, accessed., ;.This means it would be unwise to try to use drive 'M: in I 
conjunction .with interrupts. '_ % <• , > -. ' . ,\, > .-»•* i • <\ ' 

The upper 64k expansion memory (0000H to FFFFH) will be initialized to E5H bytes';* ■. 
.at each cold boot. -{After, that it. will not; be altered unless drive M: is written to*. This- , 
. is true, of course, only on 128k systems which have the Memory disk drive enabled when , ; 
'.the system is saved to'disk- with the CONFIG utility. 



•-.^•2.'frrterrup_ts . ; ' ''.'"'',' r', •*' ! . ,; ' 

The BIOS is very 'defensive; about interrupts. It 'makes no use of them at all in' any 'bfi 
-its processing, but disables them .during disk .I/O. AH device interrupts are disabled ~<htt 
,: reset time via port FOH,- but this port is ignored by the BIOS after that.-Tf ,you;have' ; 
: a need for interrupts you will have to initialize port EOH for your own purposes. • ' 

Due to the hardware* structure of the Model 4 the only choice of interrupt modes Is '. 
mode 1. This vectors all maskable interrupts to location 0038H. Keep in mind that this . 
,is the same address used by DDT, SID, ZSID, and their bretheren for breakpoint vectoring!;; 
It is also used by other CP/M programs for RST processing, which makes interrupts '■ 
a very risky proposition altogether. - . . <,"."■ 



>£iv 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. >.. Manual Revision #2.30 - . Page 53 ; 



15.3. . Process J^Iock Speed ^W ' >*"*•- 

_ __ , . ^ 

When 1 CP/M is booted the processor -is; set to run at ;4Mhz. This Is' the speed that the ~ *>-_,;. 

software was written to; run at and switching back to 2Mhz, may cause problems indisk 

I/O. Likewise you.may encounter. some problems by increasing the clock speed through , ■ . 

hardware modification. . We cannot guarantee that all .software.-- will; operate correctly - . 
r.when running at speeds higher Jhan,4Mhz and we do not provide support for speeds greater 
; than :4Mhz.It,has also'come .to-our . attention"; that some; early .desktop .Model 4s do not 
/actually nin; at : 4Mh2/; but rather ;Closer : to 3. 2Mhz;. This is not true of the Model 4P or.' - ' . ' •' 

any of , the gate array? desktops (green screen and/or'-' arrow keys clustered), and we' do 

not know why it was designed this way. 



;i5.4'.\ Register Usage ' • . • ' ' •* /* 

Since, CP/M was designed to run with' the' 8000 microprocessor/ most "CP/M programs ■ 
do not use. any of-the, additional; registers provided with; ;:the; Z80 1 microprocessor. ^We/ : 
have made extensive use of the; index registers {IX andlY) in : both v theBIOS and.in.the? 
utility programs. However ; these 'registers are always preserved" by the BIOS, so programs' 
may use them without fear of "surprises." The alternate register set is never used by 
the BIOS or utilities. 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. -':' Manual Revision #2.30 Page 54 



36. BUG REPORT: 



We have provided you with a means to report problems, if any, you may experience 
with our implementation of CP/M 2.2. » ' 

To utilize this report .just turn on your printer, press 'AP 1 , and type at, the prompt 'TYPE; ,'■ 
.REPORT. BUG'.,Thiswiri,reproduce the form listed on the next page. / - ' ,, 

Please take the ..time to tell us EXACTLY the nature of your problem. We will- use 'bur , ' 
best efforts to'get to ;the. solutions as quickly. as.'possible. We may elect to* incorporate ', ' • 
a fix in future releases .but remain under no obligation ...to- inform any or all prior, 
purchasers. • , .>•.'■,, 

Please DO NOT CALL US ABOUT BUGS. Use the form'.. We are just not able to respond ♦* • 
over the; telephone. -.Problems (Bugs) have to be written out so they can be properly; -, ; 
directed, discussed and solved. Please BE SPECIFIC. Statements like "The printer, doesn't "' . 
'•.work sometimes." or "Ultra- B ASIC won't, run." are so vague that we cannot even 'respond ' " 
to them. We hope you understand. , ^ , 

In the event you send, materials to us such as diskettes and/or documentation* please '*' ,' 
be sure your name and, address is clearly marked , 'on each item. ;We are -only normal and,'./' 
we need this, information, so we know who the items belong to in the event things get'-' 
separated. ,,,'■' 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. . , Manual Revision #2.30 Page 55 



Narne: _____l_il_^^ __ Date: 

Address: 



.City, State £ Zip Code: 



Day. Telephone: (■') ■' ■■■' .■"■. - : ; : ■ ' .'' ; v''- '• Night: C } 



* * * A * * * - * * * * A * & £ * * * £ * A & A £ -A * * * * * * A * * * -A- * * A * si- A * * & * * £ & * £ * & & ft ^ & &• £ * & ***************** 

CP/M 2.2 Version # _ _____ Serial Number: : ". 

Purchased rrom:____ • Date: 

City fi State: ' ' ' , ; 



******************* ******'*****^**************** ********** ^ 

.What application or utility program are you having problems with? 

Program Name: , . ' 



. Program Publisher: 



; Describe EXACTLY the bug or problem you have diseovered'and a step by step procedure' 
of how you encountered the problem. , ■. .. •.■•■' ,-. [ 



Please enclose-'a backup ..copy;, of /your system disk and' 'application ."program so 'that we 
may duplicate .your experience; 'as, closely; as possible. .Your' diskettes will be returned'; 
but please be aware'that the : data may be destroyed. 

NOTE: Even though programs* that A ruh on other, CP/M. machines can' be converted .to ■ 
run on the Model -4/4P there is no"; assurance that the programs "will execute on the' 
Model' 4/4P because of hardware incompatibilities. , we are, able to offer no assistance' 
in such cases. ■■. ■.. ■ ■ v ■■..*■' ■ ....... - . ... .. : ■•: 

Mail this completed form and diskettes to: ' - . , , • 

MONTEZUMA MICRO 
CP/M Support Department. Bug Room S2 

Redbird Airport, Hangar! 8 • • 

P.O. Box 763009 ■ • ■ 

Dallas, Texas 75376-3009 U.S.A. ' 

..■'Montezuma Micro. CP/M. 2.2.-. Manual Revision #2.30 ' . Page 56 .' ■■ ■. ■ 



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, :■ : ,\ '"■.'." '.17. COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 

■ •'■ < .-..-. , ■ , * > ' 

This section contains answers to "some of the questions that ..'we have been asked that"- 
;cannot be easily included inother parts of the manual. Please refer to this before writing,' 

or submitting a Bug Report, since the answer to your problem may. already, be : here, > '., ,- 



■ I just bought a, software package from XY^ company, "i'he disk label say, r ; that it is in 
':. Radio Shack Model .4 format, but I can't read the disk. Is it defective? , ; 

While' it is, possible, that''. the disk is defective it is much more likely that youvare not ' 
'■•'using '-the correct ..format to read it. Many CP/M. program" producers do not know that' 

there is more than one;CP/M format for the Model;. 4.. You- should also try Radio. Shack- 
'CP/M Plus format, Holmes' VID-80 format, and Memory Merchant format. 



Everything that I print ends up on one line. How can I get the printer to space, after 
printing one line? - , , . , . >;■ '•; •, ■• 

Because most printers that are used on. the Model 4 are set up to automatically perform '■■ 
a linefeed after each carriage return we. ship CP/M configured. to suppress the linefeed, J 
following a carriage .return. If your printer.does not do. a linefeed automatically after, 
each carriage return you will need to use the CONFIG' utility to change this. ";, * ; 



I have a copy' of WordStar from my Kaypro 2 that I would like to use on the Model 4. ■ 

When I try to run' it, though, it prints strange characters on the screen and hangs lip.' 

..Why v/on't -WordStar, run on your CP/M? . ., ,*.\ • \ 

Some computers, most notably the Kaypro and Osborne' series,- are sold with CP/M and' 
"bundled" programs such as WordStar, dBASE II, etc. These programs have been configured".;- 
to use the video and keyboard codes unique to the computer that they ;were' : sold., with./. 
To change this. information/It is necessary to "install" , the program for' operation Vwith 7' 
the Model -4. Often,; though,, the installation program : necessary to do that is either not' 
^included, or is crippled , to prevent the program from being used on another; machine.' ; 
'.In such cases your only' alternative is to buy a "generic". I.e.; non-specific,- copy, of the; 
program. We sell all of the popular programs at very competitive prices, and pre-install : 
them for optimum use with our CP/M. .... ... , ,.,; ,. 



The ABC " company has a : software package that lam interested In. - Will It f run "with' 
.Montezuma Micro CP/M? , . .' ' 

If it runs under CP/M' 2.2 'using a Lear-Siegler.ADM-3A' terminal it should work,; with 
our CP/M. To be absolutely sure contact the ABC company directly and ask them. Should 
they have any questions about our CP/M we will be happy to answer them. 

- Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ' Manual Revision #2.30 . Page 57 .- . - 



I used DUP tc^roake a copy of a disk, but the copy lias a' scrambled directory sM all 
of the files are missing or Incomplete. Isn't this a bug? • 

One of the greatest strengths of our CP/M is the ability to read and write a wide variety 
of disk formats. Like all powerful tools, this can sometimes be dangerous. If, for example,' 
you use DUP to copy a SYSTEM disk in a drive which is in DATA disk format the copy 
will proceed without error.- DUP's, copy option regards the disk as* a collection of sectors, 

'which it copies, without regard "to size or content. As long as the disk being copied has ; 
readable sectors where. ;DUP.. expects them no error will be reported. Since a DATA ■ 

,disk has, _fewer, -but' larger,-; sectors than a SYSTEM disk this type of error will cause 
only part of the data to-be copied resulting lira worthless, but error free, copy. When- 
using DUP to make a Oopy read the screen carefully to make sure that the source drive 
is in the correct format for," the disk that you are trying to copy. 



" : Why haven't you included formatsin the DISK.FDF file for TRSDOS and MS-DOS? 

Neither of these operating systems uses a disk directory, structure like that of CP/M, 
The code necessary to readarid write such disks as though they were native toour'CP/M 
would take far more memory than is practical. To move data back :and forth we have 
. created utility programs -specifically for -. this purpose. They, are part of MONTH'S 
TOOLKIT which is available at extra cost. .:■ ,. ■ , , . ... ,.,-.. •.-..- 



I just installed double-sided drives , In", ray ;Model . 4.: ; Wheri' : I; try -to , format -a. double-sided ,, 
disk with DUP ; I get : verif y. errors ;on, "every, :track. • Do : I need a , special "version of : CP/M - 
to use double-sided drives? _ 

The CP/M -that you bought -is capable of supporting double-sided drives. Unfortunately;; 
Radio Shack did not plan , for 'such additions ;when the original. Model 4 was designed.'-, 
The cable, which. connects;tbe "drives'to the /disk-. controller has pin 32, the side select?, 
line, removed. When' adding ^double-sided drives. to your system you must replace either ■« 
'the pin or the entire^cable. Then you need to run CONFIG ■ to tell. CP/M that the drive; 
has two sides instead of one, which is how it is shipped. . ,. 



I want to bring up ZCPR on my system. Where can I get the necessary information? 

All of the information that : you will need is available in the System Programmer's Manual, 
available at extra charge. Be advised that a fair amount of skill is necessary to use 
this document, and we are unable to offer any support for system modification. 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. .Manual Revision #2.30 Page 58 '. . : ; ,.j 



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18. REFERENCES 

■.18.1. Re^B^ce Books 

" CP/M Operating System manual" :';■'[.■ '. 

: by Digital Research, Inc. ■■■-.■■ 
'Digital Research, Inc., Pacific Grove, Calfornia 1982 



"The CP/M Handbook with MP/M". ' : ; j 

by Rodney Zaks 

Sybexlnc.'i Berkley, California 1 980 



-."Mastering CP/M" ' . . . ; ; ..- - . 
by Alan R. MiUer 
Sybex Inc., Berkley^ California 1 983', 



"Osborne CP/M Usier Guide" 
by Thom Hogan . • 

Osborne/McGraw"Hm* Berkley; California 1982 : 



."The Programmers CP/M Handbook 11 . , 

by Andy Johnson-Laird 

Osborne/McGraw Hill, Berkley,: California 1983 



:> Using CP/M 8 - - . -" \ . 
by Ruth Ashley and Judi N. 'Fernandez -; " 
.John Wiley £ Sons Inc.; Nev/. York, ! New York ' 1980: 



"CP/M Primer" '' '■ / - % 

; by Stephen M. Murtha and Mitchell Waite 
; Howard W.' Sams S ;Co. Inc.Vlndianapolis/Indian'a 1980 ' 






;l 8.2. C P/M Magazines , -' ', ;__. '/; ' 

"User's Guide (to CP/M Systems K Software}" '■ , V ' " 

•Excellent tutorial on how to operate common CP/M software.- Published 
every other month by TUG, Inc., P.O. Box 3050, Stanford, CA 94305 . " " . ' \ 

■Telephone (415)851-4836 

"Dr. Dobb's Journal" • , 

Software Tools for Advanced Programmers. Published monthly by M £ T Publishing, ; 
Inc., 2464 Embacadero Way, Palo Alto, C A 94303 
.'Telephone (415) 424-0600 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. . ■, ■•;;■" Manual Revision #2.30 .•■ . , Page 59 



t: 19. INDEX 



A • 

Advanced programming information, 53 

ASM, 5 

B • 

Backup.,7, 42, 44 ' ' • ': ; • • 
Boot options, 38 ■ . '; 

; Buffer, 16 . ' ■ , 

■ Bug Report, 3, 55, 57 



1 



Communications, 34 

.CONFIG, 5, 10, ] 9, 20, 22, 24, 26, 42, 50, 52, 53, 57, ; 58 
Device assignments, 27 
Disk formats, 36 , * , • , 

-"Keyboard, 30 

..Options, 26 . - '. 

;."•:. Printer, 33 • '• . -, ,, '• ■ . 

: Saving configuration, 38 " 

Serial port, 34 , . , 

■ v. Video display, 32 

■ Configuration, 26, 30, 49 

D 

DATA disk, 15, 20 • , "• . ' '., 
'DDT, 5, 22,23, 53 ' ■ ' , '. . '• ' 

Disk, 15 ..•■■_ ., ■;. -. - 

■?-. Backup, 42, 44 - ' k 

.^Checking, 42, 47 " " . • ,- V ' ,' ' 

Copying, 44 ' ","•'', 

, Drive definitions, 35 ^ .,,.,''' 
errors, 16, 17 ' ■' ' • 

^Formats, 19, 20, 22, 24, 25, 36, 39, 42, 47, 52 ' 

Formatting new, 42 -•■:,,_-■ 

C;-; Memory, 18 . ''_,'•" *>•'" • , ; 

:■,'■,,' Non-standard, 39 " _ , • - 

/Other CP/M computers, 24 
.,/ Parameter.Block, 21 ,_ '';•'!' 

: sector, 16, 46 - _ , 

: sector interleave, 46 ' ' ';>; ~ .■ ^ , 

DISK. FDF, 5, 19, 20, 23, '42, 58 ' '- 
DUMP, 5 •* ' 

DUP, 5, 7, 19, 20, 39, 42, 58 
Check, 47 

Copy, 44 -\. - 

V Format, 42 ' '•'■']'" " 

■ • Options, 42 . , ..,- • . • ' 

k ' ' ':'•'.''• 

ED, 5, 20 ' ' ■ , 

Errors, 6, 9, 16, 17, 41, 44,46, 47, 50, 52 

EXBIOS, S, 21, 37 . V, 



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G 

Getti^Btarted, 6 ' ; 

1 . •'''.''•' 

Interrupts, 53 '- ■.".■..■.■•.' 

:IOBYTE, 27 ; ■'•''-;.. : : '':■■' •.■:•' ■■ , 

K 

Keyboard, 10, 30 

Arrow keys, 10, 30, 40 
, A ASCII characters, 10, 41 
'/BREAK, 11, 30, 40 

CAPS, 11 
\, CLEAR, 11, 30, 40 
. Function keys, 11, 30, 40 
•'-Repeating keys, 31 

Standard CP/M keys, 12 ■ ';* ' 
KEYDEF, 5, 10, 11, 40, 50 

.L 

LOAD, 5 

M 

Magazines, 59 

Memory disk drive, "6, '7, 18, 36,. 38, 53' 
'Memory size of CP/M, 49 
Memory usage, 53 
MOVCPM, 5, 11, 49, 50/51 

P 

/Parallel printer port, 29, 33 ' 

PIP, 5,18, 24, 39 

Power, 6 

Printer 

; . Formfeed, 33 

i, Linefeed, 33 

Problems,; 57 -' ■ • 

Processor clock speed,' 54 



i '>',,- 



^Reference books, 59 '' •,/ ' "'',"' -..•■• ?-■■;'; •._ 

'Register usage, 54 •' •• . . • ,■_.■■ / 4 ». ; 

•■REPORT.BUG, 3, 5, 55 '.-■••-'• ' • < '■'> ■„■' 

Reporting problems, 55 " , ' ' - , ,' ■ 

RS232 port/27, 28, 29, 34 - "' •-,'■' 

S . • ' . 

Serial port, 27, 28, 29, 34 . . ''.• : 

SID, 53 • , * >' •• ■ ,' ' 

STAT, 5, 22 ' - 

SUBMIT, 5 ■ -' . ' '• .. ■ . ',-■':- 

SUPER DATA, 20 

SYSGEN, 5, 11,-20, 24, 49, 50, 51 • ' ' 

SYSTEM disk, 5,15, 20/39, 47 ■ ' . 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. ... Manual Revision #2.30 Page 61 



T 

Terminal type^ 

U ..■■'■.'■ ' ■ . - 
Upgrades, A , ■' 
Using the manual, '3.';'' 

V- •".-',/ : •:' "/:.;■■'.■"■ 
Video display, 13 
• -Control codes, 13, '.32,'. 
Cursor, positioning, 14 



•XSUB, 5 

7, 

ZSID, 53 



Montezuma Micro CP/M 2.2. Manual Revision #2,30 \ ' Page 62